has experienced frequent periods of renewal. It is fair to say
that Christian renewal has been both "transtemporal"
(reappearing throughout the past two millennia), and "transspatial"
(in all regions where the followers of Jesus have spread his message).
Recent scholarship has demonstrated that renewal has often been
associated with "peoples of the Spirit," despite opposition
and marginalization of such groups by the ecclesiastical forces
that have resisted enthusiasm in any form. The countless waves
of renewal that followed the first century have been punctuated
by prophetic voices, together with miracles, signs and wonders,
and other evidences of what we now broadly call Pentecostalism.
concentrates on modern Pentecostalism (since 1901), which differs
from earlier versions in its scope and influence. Perhaps most
surprising to both insiders and outsiders, this branch of Christianity
now is second in size to the Roman Catholic Church. In 2000, 27
percent of all Christians (approximately 537 million) were part
of the renewal, with classic Pentecostals numbering 66 million,
charismatics 176 million, and neocharismatics 295 million. The
combined movements are growing at the rate of 9 million per year,
with the total at approximately 571 million in mid-2004.
usually mark their origins on 1 January 1901, at Charles Parham's
Bethel Bible School in Topeka, Kansas, when Agnes Ozman spoke
in tongues (glossolalia). We now are aware that this was not the
first post-apostolic incidence of such glossolalia. In reality,
the real significance of this date was that Pentecostals for the
first time linked the "initial physical evidence of Spirit
Baptism" with tongues speech. This has remained the common
distinctive claimed by most classical Pentecostal denominations.
movement emerged in already existing Christian denominations from
1959 onwards. On 3 October 1960, Dennis Bennett, an Episcopal
rector in Van Nuys, California, announced to his congregation
that in November 1959 he had been baptized with the Holy Spirit
and had spoken in tongues. By the early 1960s people in virtually
every major Protestant tradition had similar experiences. In February
1967 the Charismatic movement spread to the Roman Catholic Church,
beginning simultaneously at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, and in Bogota, Columbia. All charismatics emphasize
a "life in the Spirit" and the importance of extraordinary
gifts of the Spirit, including but not limited to glossolalia,
both in private prayer and in public worship.
By far the
largest group within modern Pentecostalism is the neocharismatics.
This is a catchall category that comprises nearly nineteen thousand
independent, indigenous, nondenominational and postdenominational
groups that cannot be classified as either classical Pentecostal
or charismatic. They share with classical Pentecostals and charismatics
a common emphasis on exuberant worship, the Holy Spirit, spiritual
gifts, Pentecostal-like experiences (not Pentecostal terminology),
signs and wonders, and power encounters. In virtually every other
way, however, they are as diverse as the world's cultures they
of this volume is to introduce the reader to these vast worldwide
Christian renewal movements. Contributors represent both "insider"
and "outsider" perspectives. Treatment is necessarily
uneven because academic scholarship of classical Pentecostal and
Charismatic movements is just now flowering, and the independent
and indigenous churches and groups included in the neocharismatic
fold have only been episodically studied by social scientists.
contains 135 articles covering four broad topicsConcepts,
History and Study of Pentecostalism, Practices and Institutions,
and Regional Surveys. The Concepts articles cover particular beliefs,
doctrines, or theological approaches central to Pentecostalism.
These articles describe and explain the concepts from the viewpoint
of Pentecostalism in a way that will be clear to the uninformed
reader. The History and Study articles cover paradigms, methods,
approaches, or institutions that have been used or involved in
the study of Pentecostalism. The Practices and Institutions articles
focus on movements or institutions within Pentecostalism, and
related movements or institutions, or general sets of practices
within Pentecostalism that pertain to the relationship between
Pentecostalism and society in general. The Regions articles survey
Pentecostalism in a particular geographical area or a nation.
The articles are supplemented by dozens of photos and sidebars
and an extensive index.
transcends space and culture and is growing so rapidly, especially
in the "three-quarters world" the Pentecostal-Charismatic
renewal is increasingly difficult to define in traditional terms.
To borrow a Durkheimian (1912) expression, it might be more appropriate
to call these movements the emerging "collective effervescence"
of the Christian world.
I wish to
acknowledge David Levinson and his outstanding Berkshire Publishing
Group staff for ongoing assistance in the development of this
volume. David provided encouragement and necessary guidance, but
always allowed me complete freedom in areas of content and emphasis.
Staff members Emily Colangelo, Joseph DiStefano, Jessica LaPointe,
Courtney Linehan, and Marcy Ross were most helpful in editorial
and production coordination. I am grateful as well to Marie-Claire
Antoine of Routledge for her encouragement in the early stages
of this project. Thanks also to my editorial board, William Wedenoja,
Jerry Shepperd, and Martyn Percy, for their wise counsel.
I have benefited
from the support of both Missouri State University and Regent
University. Special thanks to my colleagues, deans, and staffs
in both institutions for their continued assistance. To all contributors,
many of whom are former colleagues and studentsfriends of
long standingI am deeply indebted. Numerous archived were
opened to me, most notably the Flower Pentecostal Archives in
Springfield, Missouri, where Wayne Warner and Glenn Gohr were
always available to answer questions and to provide necessary
details. My graduate assistant, Eric Newberg at Regent, has lightened
my load on many occasions.
I thank my wife, Dr. Ruth Vassar Burgess, a scholar in her own
right, for providing ideas, and just the appropriate combination
of spur and salve needed to complete the Encyclopedia of Pentecostal
and Charismatic Christianity.
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