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George Back 1796

British naval officer, artist, and Arctic explorer

Travel Writing

Canadian Airs, Collected by Captain George Back, R.N. during the Late Arctic Expedition under Captain Sir John Franklin, with Symphonies and Accompaniments by Edward Knight, Junior, 1823

Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the Great Fish River, and along the Shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the Years 1833, 1834 and 1835, 1836

Narrative of an Expedition in HMS Terror, Undertaken with a View to Geographical Discovery on the Arctic Shores, in the Years 1836[-]7, 1838

Arctic Artist: The Journal and Paintings of George Back, Midshipman with Franklin, 1819[-]1822, edited by C. Stuart Houston with commentary by I.S. MacLaren, 1994

Further Reading

Beechey, Frederick William, A Voyage of Discovery towards the North Pole, Performed in His Majestys Ships Dorothea and Trent, under the Command of Captain David Buchan, R.N., London: Bentley, 1843

The author was first lieutenant on board HMS Trent.

Franklin, John, Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1819, 20, 21 and 22, London: John Murray, 1823

Franklin, John, Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1825, 1826 and 1827, London: John Murray, 1828

Houston, C. Stuart (editor), To the Arctic by Canoe, 1819[-]1821: The Journal and Paintings of Robert Hood, Midshipman with Franklin, Montreal: Arctic Institute of North Amercia, 1974

Midshipman Hood, one of Backs companions on Franklins first overland expedition, was murdered during the desperate overland trek to Fort Enterprise.

Houston, C. Stuart (editor), Arctic Ordeal: The Journal of John Richardson, Surgeon-Naturalist with Franklin, 1820[-]1822, Kingston, Ontario: McGill[-]Queens University Press, and Gloucester: Sutton, 1984

Dr Richardson, one of the few survivors of Franklins first overland expedition, also served with Back on Franklins second overland expedition.

King, Richard, Narrative of a Journey to the Shore of the Arctic Ocean, in 1833, 1834, and 1835, under the Command of Capt. Back, R.N., London: Bentley, 1836

Dr Richard King was second-in-command of Backs expedition down the Ba


Travel Writing

Abbey, Edward, “A Walk in the Desert Hills”, Beyond the Wall: Essays from the Outside, 1984

Edwards, Mike W. and David Hiser, “Mexico to Canada on the Pacific Crest Trail”, National Geographic (June 1971): 741[-]79

Fisher, Ronald M., The Appalachian Trail, photographs by Dick Durrance II, foreword by Benton MacKaye, 1972

Fletcher, Colin, The Man Who Walked through Time, 1968

Harrison, Jim, “A Passacalgia on Getting Lost” in On Nature: Nature, Landscape, and Natural History, edited by Daniel Halpern, 1987

Hemingway, Ernest, “Big Two-Hearted River” in his In Our Time: Stories, 1925

Jenkins, Peter, A Walk across America, 1979

Kaplan, Robert D., The Ends of the Earth: A Journey to the Dawn of the 21st Century, 1996

Kerouac, Jack, The Dharma Bums, 1958

Krakauer, Jon, Into the Wild, 1996

LaBastille, Anne, Woodswoman, 1976

Leopold, Aldo, “The Green Lagoons” in his A Sand County Almanac, illustrated by Charles W. Schwartz, 1949

Matthiessen, Peter, The Snow Leopard, 1978

McGinniss, Joe, “The Brooks Range” in his Going to Extremes, 1980

Muir, John, “A Near View of the High Sierras” in The Wilderness Reader, edited by Frank Bergon, 1980

Murdoch, Stephen, “Domesticity Never Looked So Exciting”, Newsweek, (3 July 2000): 11

Olson, Sigurd F., “Ancient Trails” in his Of Time and Place, illustrations by Leslie Konba, 1982

Rowell, Galen, “The John Muir Trail: Along the High, Wild Sierra”, National Geographic, 175 (April 1989): 460[-]93

Snyder, Gary and Allen Ginsberg, “Glacier Peak Wilderness Area” in Snyder’s Earth House Hold: Technical Notes and Queries to Fellow Dharma Revolutionaries, 1969

Snyder, Gary and Allen Ginsberg, “On the Path and off the Trail”, Antaeus, 63 (Autumn 1989): 227[-]38

“Ten Best Hike-in Views” and “Ten Best Trails of the World”, Backpacker, 16 (January 1988): 67[-]69

Further Reading

Jarvis, Robin, Romantic Writing and Pedestrian Travel, Basingstoke: Macmillan, and New York: St Martin’s Press, 1997

Lyon, Thomas J., “A Taxonomy of Nature Writing” in This Incomperable Lande: A Book of American Nature Writing, edited by Lyon, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989

McQuillan, Gene, “The Forest Track: Working with William Cronon’s ‘The Trouble with Wilderness’”, College Literature, 27/2 (Spring 2000): 157[-]72

Nash, Roderick, “The Wilderness Cult” in his Wilderness and the American Mind, 3rd edition, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1982

Robertson, Janet, The Magnificent Mountain Women: Adventures in the Colorado Rockies, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990

Sax, Joseph L., “The Ideal in Practice” in his Mountains without Handrails: Reflections on the National Parks, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980

Schullery, Paul, Mountain Time, New York: Schocken, 1984

Tisdale, Sally, “Never Let the Locals See Your Map (Why Most Travel Writers Should Stay Home)”, Harper’s (September 1995): 66[-]74

Baedeker Guides

Further Reading

Eliot, T.S., The Letters of T.S. Eliot, vol. 1: 1898[-]1922, edited by Valerie Eliot, London: Faber, and San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988

Forster, E.M., Where Angels Fear to Tread, Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1905; New York: Knopf, 1920

James, Henry, Collected Travel Writings: The Continent, New York: Library of America, 1993

Mendelson, Edward, “Baedeker’s Universe”, The Yale Review, 74/3 (Spring 1985): 386[-]403

Shaw, George Bernard, London Music in 1888[-]89, as Heard by Corno di Bassetto, London: Constable, 1937

Twain, Mark, A Tramp Abroad, Hartford, Connecticut: American Publishing Company, and London: Chatto and Windus, 1880; New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996

Wind, Herbert Warren, “The House of Baedeker”, New Yorker, 51 (22 September 1975): 42[-]93

William Baffin

English navigator, explorer, and scientific observer

Travel Writing

“The Fourth Voyage of James Hall to Groeneland, wherein He was Set Forth by English Adventurers, Anno 1612, and Slaine by a Greenelander”; “A Journal of the Voyage Made to Greenland with Five English Ships and a Pinasse, in the Yeere 1613”; “A True Relation of Such Things as Happened in the Fourth Voyage for the Discoverie of the North-west Passage, Performed in the Yeere 1615”; “A Briefe and True Relation or Journall, Contayning Such Accidents as Happened in the Fift Voyage, for the Discoverie of a Passage to the North-West, Set Forth at the Charges of the Right Worshipfull Sir Tho. Smith Knight, Sir Dudly Digges Knight, Master John Wostenholme Esquire, Master Alderman Jones, with Others, in the Good Ship Called the Discoverie of London; Robert Bileth Master, and My Selfe Pilot, Performed in the Yeere of our Lord 1616”; and “Relation of the Fight of Foure English Ships with Foure Portugall Ships, Two Galliats, and Ten Frigats in the Gulfe of Persia, in the Monethes of December and January, 1620” all in Purchas His Pilgrimes, edited by Samuel Purchas, 4 vols, 1625; reprinted, as Hakluytus Posthumus; or, Purchas His Pilgrimes, 20 vols, 1905[-]07

The Voyages of William Baffin, 1612[-]1622, edited by Clements R. Markham, 1881

Reprints many of the different accounts of Baffin’s voyages and contains a useful introduction and maps. It is still the only book to be dedicated entirely to Baffin’s voyages, and the current article draws heavily on it.

Further Reading

Fotherby, Robert, “A Voyage of Discouerie to Greenland, etc., Anno 1614” in Purchas His Pilgrimes, edited by Samuel Purchas, vol. 3, book 4, London: Fetherstone, 1625; in The Voyages of William Baffin, 1612[-]1622, edited by Clements R. Markham, London: Hakluyt Society, 1881

An account of Baffin’s third recorded voyage, of which he himself left no narrative.

Fotherby, Robert, “Narrative of a Voyage to Spitzbergen in the Year 1613, at the Charge of the Fellowship of English Merchants for the Discovery of New Trades; Commonly Called the Muscovy Company: with a Description of the Country, and the Operations of the Whale-fishery; Now First Printed from the Original Manuscript, with an Introduction and Notes, by Samuel F. Haven”, Transactions and Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, 4 (1860): 239[-]314; in The Voyages of William Baffin, 1612[-]1622, edited by Clements R. Markham, London: Hakluyt Society, 1881

Another account of Baffin’s second recorded voyage, the 1613 expedition to Spitzbergen.

Gatonbe, John, “A Voyage into the North-West Passage, Undertaken in the Year 1612” in A Collection of Voyages and Travels, edited by Awnsham Churchill and John Churchill, 6 vols, London: John Walthoe, 1732 

A fuller account than that published by Purchas of Baffin’s first recorded voyage.

Monox, Edward, “Relation of the Late Ormus Businesse, Gathered out of the Journall of Master Edward Monoxe the Agent for the East Indian Merchants Trading in Persia” in Purchas His Pilgrimes, edited by Samuel Purchas, vol. 2, book 10, London: Fetherstone, 1625; reprinted, as Hakluytus Posthumus; or, Purchas His Pilgrimes, 20 vols, 1905[-]07

Pinder, W., “Relation of Ormuz” in Purchas His Pilgrimes, vol. 2, book 10, edited by Samuel Purchas, London: Fetherstone, 1625; as Hakluytus Posthumus, 20 vols, 1905[-]07

An account of the 1620[-]22 voyage to Hormuz.

Rundall, Thomas (editor), Narratives of Voyages towards the North-West, in Search of a Passage to Cathay and India, 1496 to 1631: With Selections from the Early Records of the Honourable the East India Company and from MSS. in the British Museum, London: Hakluyt Society, 1849

Wilson, T., “Part of a Letter Written to Sir John Wostenholme by T. Wilson Chyrurgion; Contayning Many Particulars of the Ormus Warre and Cause Therof; as Also of the Most Admirable Taking of a Great Portugal Ship Well Manned, by a Small English Pinnesse” in Purchas His Pilgrimes, edited by Samuel Purchas, vol. 2, book 10, London: Fetherstone, 1625; as Hakluytus Posthumus, 20 vols, 1905[-]07

The letter includes a brief notice of Baffin’s death.

Thomas Baines 1820[-]1875

British artist, traveller, and explorer

Travel Writing

The Northern Goldfields Diaries of Thomas Baines, edited by J.P.R. Wallis, 3 vols, 1946

Journal of Residence in Africa, 1842[-]1853, edited by R.F. Kennedy, vol. 2, 1861

Explorations in South-West Africa, 1864

Various Articles, Nature and Art, 1866

Shifts and Expedients of Camp Life, Travel and Exploration, with William B. Lord, 1871

The Gold Regions of South Eastern Africa, 1877

Illustrated Albums

Scenery and Events in South Africa: A Series of View, 1852

The Victoria Falls, Zambesi River: Sketched on the Spot, 1865

The Birds of South Africa, 1972

Further Reading

Braddon, Russell, Thomas Baines and the North Australian Expedition, Sydney: Collins, 1986

Carruthers, Jane, Thomas Baines: Eastern Cape Sketches, 1848[-]1852, Johannesburg: Brenthurst, 1970; Houghton: Brenthurst Press, 1990

Carruthers, Jane and Marion Arnold, The Life and Work of Thomas Baines, Vlaeberg, South Africa: Fernwood Press, 1995

Stevenson, Michael (editor), Thomas Baines: An Artist in the Service of Science in Southern Africa: Paintings from the Collections of the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and the Natural History Museum, London: Christie’s, 1999

Tabler, Edward C., Eric Axelson and Elaine N. Katz, Baines on the Zambezi, 1858 to 1859, Johannesberg: Brenthurst Press, 1982

Wallis, J.P.R., Thomas Baines: His Life and Explorations in South Africa, Rhodesia and Australia, 1820[-]1875, Cape Town: Balkema, 1976

Baker, Samuel White 1821[-]1893

British traveller, hunter, and writer

Travel Writing

The Rifle and the Hound in Ceylon, 1854

Narrates Baker’s hunting experiences in the country he adopted.

Eight Years’ Wanderings in Ceylon, 1855

Tells of Baker’s experiences as a young settler in Ceylon, about 115 miles away from the capital Columbo.

The Albert Nyanza: Great Basin of the Nile, and Explorations of the Nile Sources, 2 vols, 1866

Account of Baker’s first expedition, where he discovered the lake he named the Albert Nyanza. This book was so popular that it was regularly reprinted and published in several different editions.

The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia and the Sword Hunters of the Hamran Arabs, 1867

Baker impressed the Arabs with his prowess as a hunter while investigating the sediments of various tributaries of the Blue Nile.

Cast up by the Sea, 1868

An adventure story for boys, with numerous autobiographical aspects, ranging from Ceylon to central Africa.

Ismailïa: A Narrative of the Expedition to Central Africa, for the Suppression of the Slave Trade, Organized by Ismail, Khedive of Egypt, 2 vols, 1874

Narrative of Baker’s efforts to place the areas between Gondokoro and the Central African lakes under Egyptian control.

Cyprus as I Saw It in 1879, 1879

Baker’s writing was as vivid and entertaining while writing about countries closer to home as it was when telling of his adventures in the interior of Africa.

True Tales for My Grandsons, 1883

Wild Beasts and Their Ways: Reminiscences of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, 1890

A popular account of various hunting adventures in lands as disparate as Japan, the United States, India, and Europe.

Further Reading

Baker, J.R., “Samuel Baker’s Route to the Albert Nyanza”, Geographical Journal, 131 (1965): 13[-]20

A scholarly article examining some of the details of Baker’s most famous journey.

Hall, Richard, Lovers on the Nile, London: Collins, 1980; as Lovers on the Nile: The Incredible African Journeys of Sam and Florence Baker, New York: Random House, 1980

The most recent major account, by a well-known writer on African exploration.

Middleton, Dorothy, Baker of the Nile, London: Falcon Press, 1949

Perhaps the classic account of Baker, written by a famous historian of exploration.

Murray, T. Douglas and A.S. White, Sir Samuel Baker: A Memoir, London: Macmillan, 1895

Written shortly after Baker’s death, this is short on the perspective gained through time.

Bali 1800[-]1970

Travel Writing

Baum, Vicki, Liebe und Tod auf Bali, 1937; as Life and Death on Bali, 1937; as A Tale from Bali: The Powerful Account of a Holocaust in Paradise, 1986

Nnovel by a German author on the puputan in 1906.

Bloemen Waanders, P.L. van, “Aanteekeningen omtrent de zeden en gebruiken der Balinezen” [Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Balinese], Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde uitgegeven door het Bataviaasch Genootschap, 8 (1859): 105[-]279

Blom, Govert, Lotgevallen op mijne reis naar Java, het verongelukken van het fregatschip Overyssel, nabij het eiland Baly, en terugreis naar Nederland met het fregatschip Johanna Catharina [Adventures on My Journey to Java, the Shipwreck of the Frigate Overyssel, near the Island of Bali, and My Return Voyage to the Netherlands with the frigate Johanna Catharina], 1841

The story of a shipwreck in 1841 and an involuntary stay in Bali, with many impressions of life in Bali, at the courts etc.

Broek, H.A. van den, “Verslag noopens het eiland Bali” [Report on the Island of Bali], De Oosterling, 1 (1835): 158[-]236

Covarrubias, Miguel, Island of Bali, 1937

The classic work on Bali as a paradise, by a Mexican artist, often imitated by other, less talented authors.

Crawfurd, John, History of the Indian Archipelago: Containing an Account of the Manners, Arts, Languages, Religions, Institutions, and Commerce of Its Inhabitants, 3 vols, 1820

Eck, R. van, “Schetsen van het eiland Bali” [Sketches of the Island of Bali], Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië, 7 (1878): 85[-]130, 165[-]213, 325[-]56, 405[-]30; 8 (1879): 36[-]60, 104[-]34, 286[-]305, 365[-]87; 9 (1880): 1[-]39, 102[-]32, 195[-]221, 401[-]29

Friederich, R., “A Preliminary Account of the Island of Bali”, Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, 3 (1849): 117[-]39 and 235[-]50

English translation of a report by a Dutch government commissioner, written on the eve of the first military expedition to Bali in 1846.

Helms, Ludvig Verner, Pioneering in the Far East and Journeys to California in 1849 and to the White Sea in 1878, 1882

The account of a compatriot of Mads Lange, who lived for two years in Bali.

Hoëvell, W.R. van, Reis over Java, Madura en Bali in het midden van 1847 [Journey on Java, Madura and Bali in mid-1847], 3 vols, 1849[-]54

Hogendorp, Dirk van, Berigt van den tegenwoordigen toestand der Bataafsche bezittingen in Oost-Indiën en den handel op dezelve [Report of the current situation of the Dutch Possessions in the East Indies and on the Trade with Them], 2nd edition, 1800

Jacobs, J., Eenigen tijd onder de Baliërs: Eene reisbeschrijving, met aan tekeningen betreffende hygiène, land- en volkenkunde van de eilanden Bali en Lombok [Some Time among the Balinese: A Travelogue with Notes on Hygiene and Ethnography of the Islands of Bali and Lombok], 1883

Kol, H.H. van, Driemaal dwars door Sumatra en zwerftochten door Bali [Three Times Right across Sumatra and Rambles on Bali], 1914

Impressions from Bali after the puputan by a leading Dutch Social-Democratic Member of Parliament.

Kol, H.H. van, Uit onze koloniën [From Our Colonies], 1903

Early travel impressions from Bali.

Last, Jef, Bali in de kentering [Bali in transition], 1955

Mathews, Anna, The Night of Purnama, 1965

Mead, Margaret and Gregory Bateson, Balinese character: A photographic Analysis, 1942

An attempt to determine Balinese “national character” through the interpretation of photographs; heavily influenced by Walter Spies.

Medhurst, W.H. and W. Tomlin, Journal of a Tour along the Coast of Java and Bali, 1830

Nieuwenkamp, W.O.J., Bali en Lombok: Zijnde een verzameling geïllustreerde reisherinneringen en studies omtrent land en volk, kunst en kunstnijverheid [Bali and Lombok: Being a Collection of Illustrated Travel Reminiscences and Studies on Land and People, Art and Crafts], 3 vols, 1906[-]10

Powell, Hickman, The Last Paradise, 1930

Raffles, Thomas Stamford, The History of Java, 2 vols, 1817; reprinted, 1965

Tantri, K’tut, Revolt in Paradise, 1960

Weede, H.M. van, Indische reisherinneringen [Netherlands Indies travel reminiscences], 1908

Contains a eyewitness account of the puputan of 1906, when the author was touring Bali for holidays, a remarkable holiday experience.

Further Reading

Boon, James A., The Anthropological Romance of Bali, 1595[-]1972, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977

Pollman, T., “Margaret Mead’s Balinese: The Fitting Symbols of the American Dream”, Indonesia, 49 (1990): 1[-]35

Rhodius, Hans, Schönheit und Reichtum des Lebens: Walter Spies, Maler und Musiker auf Bali, 1895[-]1942: Eine Autobiographie in Briefen mit ergänzenden Erinnerungen [Beauty and the Riches of Life: Walter Spies, Painter and Musician on Bali, 1895[-]1942: An Autobiography, Supplemented with Reminiscences], The Hague: Boucher, 1964

Ricklefs, M.C., A History of Modern Indonesia, c.1300 to the Present, London: Macmillan, 1980; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981

Schult Nordholt, H., The Spell of Power: A History of Balinese Politics, 1650[-]1940, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1996

Vickers, Adrian, Bali: A Paradise Created, Berkeley, California: Periplus, 1989

Vickers, Adrian (editor), Travelling to Bali: Four Hundred Years of Journeys, Kuala Lumpur, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994

Balkans: pre-1914

Travel Writing

Adam, Robert, The Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia, 1764

Blau, Otto, Reisen in Bosnien und der Hertzegowina: Topographische und pflanzengeographische Aufzeichnungen, 1877

Based on extensive travels by the Prussian consul in Sarajevo, 1861[-]72; Bosnian topography, roads, flora, and fauna are meticulously described.

Blount, Henry, A Voyage into the Levant, 1636

A seasoned traveller after visiting several European countries, Blount went to Turkey in 1634 in order to see the other part of the Continent; in the Balkans, he travelled from Split to Istanbul via Belgrade and Niš.

Boué, Ami, La Turquie d’Europe, 4 vols, 1840

Boué, Ami, Recueil d’itinéraires dans la Turquie d’Europe, 1854

A physician, scientist, and polyglot, Boué travelled widely in the Balkans (1836[-]38) and wrote generally reliably about the region.

Browne, Edward, A Brief Account of Some Travels in Hungaria, Servia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thessaly, Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and Friuli, 1673; 2nd enlarged edition, 1685

A “philosophical” traveller, Browne represents expanded travel interests at that time, including those in ores and minerals.

Burbury, John, A Relation of a Journey of the Right Honourable My Lord Henry Howard, From London to Vienna, and thence to Constantinople, 1671

Burbury accompanied a high-level diplomatic delegation to Istanbul which travelled very comfortably; none the less, 26 members of the party died in eastern Serbia, perhaps of exhaustion or heat stroke.

Chaumette des Fossés, J.B.A., Voyage en Bosnie dans les années 1807 et 1808, 1816

This travelogue served as a chief source for Ivo Andrić’s 1945 historical novel Travnička hronika (The Days of the Consuls).

Chesneau, Jean, Voyage de Monsieur d’Aramon, ambassadeur pour le Roy en Levant, 1887; reprinted, 1970

De Windt, Harry, Through Savage Europe, being the Narrative of a Journey, throughout the Balkan States and European Russia, 1907

Du Fresne-Canaye, Philippe, Le Voyage du Levant, 1897; reprinted, 1980

An early traveller chiefly motivated by curiosity, Du Fresne-Canaye accompanied a French embassy to Istanbul in 1573, writing his travelogue in Italian. It was published, in the French translation, only in 1897.

Durham, Mary Edith, Through the Lands of the Serb, 1904

Durham, Mary Edith, The Burden of the Balkans, 1905

Durham was a noted woman traveller and student of the Balkans, especially of Albania. She believed that the problems in the peninsula stem from racial, not religious differences.

Evans, Arthur, Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina on Foot during the Insurrection, August and September 1875, 1876

Based on Evans’s walking tour with his brother Lewis in 1875. A passionate walker, Evans always carried a walking-stick, always called “Prodger”.

Evans, Arthur, Illyrian Letters, 1878

A collection of reports written from Bosnia for The Manchester Guardian in 1877.

Evliya, Çelebi, Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 2 vols, translated from the Turkish by Joseph von Hammer, 1850

The authenticity of parts of Çelebi’s work is questionable, but his descriptions of many Balkan places ring true; besides, he was the first to mention a number of settlements and localities in the peninsula.

Evliya, Çelebi, Putopis: Odlomci o jugoslavenskim zemljama, edited and translated by Hazim Šabanović, 1967

Selections from Evliya Çelebi’s travel accounts of South Slavic lands, with copious notes by the editor.

Fortis, Alberto, Viaggi in Dalmazia, 2 vols, 1774; as Travels in Dalmatia, 1778

One of the earliest works to discuss the geography, folklore, language, history, and literature of the western Balkans; illustrated with drawings. Fortis was the discoverer of the Bosnian folk poem “Hasanaginica,” which he published in translation in this book.

Gédoyn, Louis, Journal et correspondance de Gédoyn “le Turc”, 1909

A French diplomat’s description of a strenuous trip from Paris to Istanbul via Belgrade (September 1623[-]March 1624).

Giljferding, Aleksandar, Putovanje po Hercegovini, Bosni i Staroj Srbiji, Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1972; 2nd Bosnian/Serbo-Croatian edition, Belgrade, 1996

A travelogue-cum-political commentary by the Russian consul in Sarajevo in 1857. First published in St Petersburg in 1859.

Henderson, Percy E., A British Officer in the Balkans, 1909

A journey through Dalmatia, Montenegro, “Turkey in Austria”, and Hungary at the beginning of the 20th century by a British officer who calls himself “Selim”.

Holbach, Maude M., Dalmatia: The Land where East Meets West, 1908

Holbach, Maude M., Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1910

Hutchinson, Frances Kinsley, Motoring in the Balkans: Along the Highways of Dalmatia, Montenegro, the Herzogovina and Bosnia, 1909

Ingulf, Abbot of Crowland, Ingulph’s Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland with the Continuations by Peter of Blois and Anonymous Writers, translated from the Latin by Henry T. Riley, 1854

Irby, Adeline Paulina and Georgina Muir Mackenzie, Travels in the Slavonic Provinces  of Turkey-in-Europe, 1866; 2nd, enlarged edition, 1877

Mackenzie, who died in 1874, was the chief author of the text of the first edition. Irby, who settled in Sarajevo and died there in 1911, added three chapters on Bosnia to the second edition.

Kuripečič, Benedikt, Itinerarium oder die Botschaftsreise des Josef von Lamberg und Nicolas Jurischitz durch Bosnien, Serbien, Bulgarien nach Constantinopel 1530

Kuripečič, Benedikt, Putopis kroz Bosnu, Srbiju, Bulgarsku i Rumeliju 1530

La Brocquière, Bertrandon de, Voyage d’outremer, edited by Ch. Schefer, 1892; as The Voyage d’outremer, translated and edited by Galen R. Kline, 1988

Miller, William, Travels and Politics in the Near East, 1898

Miller made several trips to the Balkans, or the “Near East” (1894, 1896, 1897, 1898), in order to study the “Eastern Question” and the least-known “parts of our continent”.

Mundy, Peter, The Travels of Peter Mundy, in Europe and Asia, 1608[-]1667, 5 vols, edited by Richard Carnac Temple, 1907[-]67

The description of Mundy’s journey through the Balkans in 1620 is in the first volume, Travels in Europe, 1608[-]1628, 1907.

Poqueville, F.C.H.L., Voyage au Morée, à Constantinople, en Albanie et dans plusieurs autres parties de l’Empire ottoman pendant les années 1798, 1799, 1800 et 1801, translated as Travels through the Morea, Albania, and Other Parts of the Ottoman Empire … in A Collection of Modern and Contemporary Voyages and Travels, by Richard Phillips, vol. 3, 1805[-]10

Skene, James Henry, The Frontier Lands of the Christian and the Turk: Comprising Travels in the Regions of the Lower Danube, in 1850 and 1851, 2 vols, 1853

A Briton’s experience of travel as old-fashioned adventure. Includes some political commentary and observations, and descriptions of encounters with a number of Turkish officials and military commanders.

Spencer, Edmund, Travels in European Turkey in 1850, 2 vols, 1851

The Balkans, writes Spencer, offer “the hardships, freedom and romance of Eastern travel”.

Torkington, Richard, Ye Oldest Diarie of Englysshe Travel, edited by W.J. Loftie, 1884

Vaka, Demetra, In the Shadow of Islam, 1911

Wilkinson, J. Gardner, Dalmatia and Montenegro: With a Journey to Mostar in Herzegovina, 2 vols, 1848

The highlights of this narrative are the descriptions of the author’s visits to Ali-paša Rizvanbegović and Petar Petrović Njegoš and his attempts to bring the savage feuding practices they engage in to an end.

Yriarte, Charles, Bosnie et Herzégovine: souvenirs de voyage pendant l’insurrection, 1876

Includes an eye-witness account of the insurrection in Bosnia against Turkish rule, 1875[-]76.

Yriarte, Charles, Les Bords de l’Adriatique et le Monténégro, 1878

The author visited the Adriatic coast in 1874 in search of the remnants of Venetian rule in the old settlements from Istria to Montenegro.

Further Reading

Allcock, John B. and Antonia Young (editors), Black Lambs and Grey Falcons: Women Travellers in the Balkans, Bradford: Bradford University Press, 1991; 2nd edition, New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2000

A collection of essays on women travellers in the Balkans; includes biographical data.

Anderson, Dorothy, Miss Irby and Her Friends, London: Hutchinson, 1966

A study of A.P. Irby, G.M. Mackenzie, and P. Johnson and their travels and life in the Balkans.

Cvetkova, Bistra (editor), Frenski pîtepisi za Balkanite, xv-xviii v, Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo, 1975

An anthology of French travel writings about the Balkans from the 15th to the 18th centuries.

Filipović, Rudolf, Englesko-hrvatske književne veze, Zagreb: Liber, 1972

An exploration of English-Croatian literary relations through centuries.

Golczewski, Mechthil, Der Balkan in Deutschen und Österreichischen Reis- und Erlebnisberichten, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1981

A study of the Balkans in German and Austrian travel literature.

Hadžiselimović, Omer (editor), Na vratima Istoka: engleski putnici o Bosni i Hercegovini od 16. do 20. vijeka, Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1989; as At the Gates of the East: British Travel Writers on Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, Boulder: East European Monographs; New York: Columbia University Press, 2001

An anthology of British travel writings on Bosnia and Herzegovina from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

Iorga, Niculai (editor), Les Voyageurs français dans l’Orient Européen (conference proceedings), Paris: Boivin, 1928

A study of French travel in the “European East”

Jonov, Michael (editor), Nemski i avstriiski pîtepisi za Balkanite, xvii-xviii v., Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo, 1986

German and Austrian travel writings about the Balkans in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Jovanović, Vojislav, Engleska bibliografija o Istočnom pitanju, Belgrade: Državna štamparija, 1908; edited by Marta Frajnd, Belgrade: Institut za književnost i umetnost, 1978

A bibliography of English works on the Eastern question, including travel books.

Kostić, Veselin, Kulturne veze izmedju jugoslovenskih zemalja i Engleske do 1700, Belgrade: SANU, 1972

An examination of cultural relations between the South Slavic lands and England until 1700; includes a discussion of English travel writings.

Samardžić, Radovan, Beograd i Srbija u spisima francuskih savremenika: XVI i XVII vek, Belgrade: Istoriski arhiv Beograda, 1961

A study of 16th- and 17th-century French accounts of Belgrade and Serbia.

Šamić, Midhat, Francuski putnici u Bosni i Hercegovini u XIX stoljeću (1836[-]1878) i njihovi utisci o njoj, Sarajevo: Veselin Masleša, 1981; as Les voyageurs français en Bosnie à la fin u XVIIIe siècle et au début du XIXe et le pays tel qu’ils l’ont vu, Paris: Didier, 1960

A study of French travellers in Bosnia in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Todorova, Maria, Imagining the Balkans, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997

A critical examination of Western perceptions of the Balkans, including those expressed in travel writings.

Balloons and Airships

Travel Writing

Ahlmann, H. W:son (ed.), Med Örnen mot Polen: Andrées polarexpedition år 1897 utgiven på grundval av S.A. Andrée, Nils Strindberg och Knut Fraenkel sommaren 1930 på Vitön funna anteckningar, 1930

Andrée, S.A., “Förslag till polarfärd med luftballong: Föredrag”, 1895

Further Reading

Ackroyd, John, Pacific Flyer - Ocean Crossing Balloon Adventure, Ryde, England: privately printed, 1991

Ahlmann, H. W:son (ed.), Med Örnen mot Polen: Andrées polarexpedition år 1897 utgiven på grundval av S.A. Andrée, Nils Strindberg och Knut Fraenkel sommaren 1930 på Vitön funna anteckningar, 1930

Capelotti, P.J., By Airship to the North Pole: An Archaeology of Human Exploration, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1999

Gillespie, Charles, The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation, 1783-1784, Princeton, 1983

Kjellström, Rolf, “Några orsaker till Andrée-expeditionens undergång”, Stockholm: Ymer, 1998, 26-38

Liljequist, G.H., High Latitudes: A History of Swedish Polar Travels and Research, Stockholm: The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat & Streiffert, 1993

Lundström, Sven, “Andrée-expeditionen i vår tids ljus”, Stockholm: Ymer, 1998, 39 49

Lundström, Sven, Andrées polarexpedition: Ett ödesdrama i text och bild, Höganäs: Bra Böcker, 1988

Sörlin, Sverker, “Hemkomsten: De dödas färd från Vitön”, Stockholm: Ymer, 1998, 50-59

Wråkberg, Urban, “Hundra år av historieskrivning kring S.A. Andrée och hans polarexpedition”, Stockholm: Ymer, 1998, 60-76

Joseph Banks 1743[-]1820

British naturalist, explorer, and patron of exploration

Travel Writing

The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks, 1768[-]71, edited by J.C. Beaglehole, 2 vols, 1962

The first complete publication of the manuscript now in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.

Joseph Banks in Newfoundland & Labrador, 1766: His Diary, Manuscripts and Collections, edited by A.M. Lysaght, 1971

The first publication of the diary now in the possession of the South Australian Branch of the Royal Geographical Society, Adelaide, and associated manuscripts and illustrations from other sources, especially the Natural History Museum, London.

The Banks Letters: A Calendar of the Manuscript Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, edited by Warren R. Dawson, 1958; Supplementary Letters, 1962

A huge summary of the letters preserved in the British Library, the Natural History Museum, and other British collections, giving a detailed view of the range and importance of Banks’s work in planning and encouraging exploration and settlement.

The Letters of Sir Joseph Banks: A Selection 1768[-]1820, edited by Neil Chambers, 2001

Pennant, Thomas, A Tour in Scotland, and Voyage to the Hebrides MDCCLXXII, 1774 (pp.261[-]69, plates 27[-]31, especially plate 28, “Fingal’s Cave”); edited by Andrew Simmons, 1998.

Further Reading

Cameron, Hector Charles, Sir Joseph Banks, K.B., P.R.S.: The Autocrat of the Philosophers, London: Batchworth Press, 1952

A short introduction to a crowded life.

Carter, H.B., Sir Joseph Banks, 1743[-]1820, London: British Museum, 1988

The official biography, based on the Banks Archive held at the Natural History Museum.

Troil, Uno von, Letters on Iceland: Containing Observations … Made during a Voyage Undertaken in the Year 1772, by Joseph Banks, Esq., F.R S. … and Several Other Literary and Ingenious Gentlemen, London: W. Richardson, 1780

João de Barros

Portuguese historian and writer

Travel Writing

Ásia de João de Barros dos Feitos que os Portugueses Fizeram no Descobrimento e Conquista dos Mares e Terras do Oriente. Primeira década, 1552

Segunda Década da Ásia de João de Barros [Second Decade of Asia], 1553

Terceira Década da Ásia [Third Decade of Asia], 1563

Quarta Década da Ásia de João de Barros … com notas e taboas geographicas de João Baptista Lavanha [Fourth Decade of Asia], 1615

Décadas da Ásia [Decades of Asia], edited by A.A. Grillo and G.A. Grillo, 1886; edited by Hernâni Cidade and Manuel Múrias, 6th edition, 4 vols, 1945[-]46; selection, edited by António Baião, 4 vols, 1945[-]46

The History of Ceylon, from the Earliest Times to 1600 ad, translated and edited by Donald Ferguson, 1909 [extracted from Ásia]

Further Reading

Boxer, C.R., João de Barros: Portuguese Humanist and Historian of Asia, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 1981

Boxer, C.R., Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415[-]1825, London: Hutchinson, and New York: Knopf, 1969; reprinted, Manchester: Carcanet, 1991

Buescu, Ana Isabel, “João de Barros: Humanismo, Mercancia e Celebração Imperial” [João de Barros: Humanism, Trade, and Imperial Celebration], Oceanos, 27 (July[-]September 1996): 10[-]27

Buescu, Leonor, “João de Barros”, Verbo: Enciclopédia Luso-Brasileira de Cultura, vol. 3, Lisbon: Verbo, 1965

Cidade, Hernâni, A Literatura Portuguesa e a Expansão Ultramarina [Portuguese Literature and Overseas] vol. 1: Os Séculos XV e XVI, Lisbon: Agência Geral das Colónias, 1943; 2nd edition, Coimbra: Amado, 1963

Cidade, Hernâni, “João de Barros; O que pensa da língua portuguesa; como a escreve”, [João de Barros; What he Thinks about Portuguese Language; How he Writes It], Boletim de Filologia (Lisbon), 11 (1950): 281[-]303

Cordeiro, Luciano, “Documentos sobre Viagens, Navegações e Conquistas dos Portugueses” [Documents about Travels, Navigations and Conquests by the Portuguese] in his Questões Histórico-Coloniais, vol. 1, Lisbon: Agência Geral das Colónias, 1935

Diffie, Bailey W. and George D. Winius, The Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415[-]1580, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977

Godinho, Vitorino Magalhães, Documentos sobre a Expansão Portuguesa [Documents about Portuguese Expansion], vols 1[-]2, Lisbon: Gleba, 1943[-]45; vol. 3, Lisbon: Cosmos, 1956

Martins, Atílio A.R., Subsídios para uma Edição Crítica da “Ásia” de João de Barros [Contributions to a Critical Edition of Barros’s Asia], Braga: no publisher, 1963

Matos, Luís, “Acerca dos Inéditos de João de Barros” [About Barros’s Unpublished Works] in Actas do III Coloquio Internacional de Estudos Luso-Brasileiros (1957), 2 vols, Lisbon, 1959

Moreira, Rafael and William M. Thomas, “Desventuras de João de Barros: O Achado da Nau Aires da Cunha Naufragada em 1536”, Oceanos, 27 (July[-]September 1996): 101

Penrose, Boies, Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance, 1420[-]1620, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1952; 2nd edition, 1955

John Barrow 1764[-]1848

British explorer, writer, and geographer

Travel Writing

An Account of Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa, in the Years 1797 and 1798, 2 vols, 1801[-]04

A Description of Pocket and Magazine Cases of Mathematical Drawing Instruments, 1803

Travels in China ..., 1804

A Voyage to Cochinchina, in the Years 1792 and 1793, 1806

Some Account of the Public Life, and a Selection of the Unpublished Writings of the Earl of Macartney, 1807

A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions; Undertaken Chiefly for the Purpose of Discovering a North-east, North-west, or Polar Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific, 1818; reprinted, 1971

The Life of George, Lord Anson, Admiral of the Fleet, 1838

The Life of Richard, Earl Howe, K.G. Admiral of the Fleet, and General of Marines, 1838

The Life, Voyages, and Exploits of Admiral Sir Francis Drake, Knt., with Numerous Original Letters from Him, 1843; reprinted, 1900

Voyages of Discovery and Research within the Arctic Regions, from the Year 1818 to the Present Time, 1846

The Eventful History of the Mutiny and Piratical Seizure of HMS Bounty: Its Causes and Consequences, 1876

Further Reading

An Auto-biographical Memoir of Sir John Barrow, Bart., Late of the Admiralty, London: John Murray, 1847

Bravo, Michael T., The British Search for the North-West Passage: Maps and Exploration 1818[-]1823, 1987

Fleming, Fergus, Barrow’s Boys, London: Granta, 1998; New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000

Jones, Alfred Godfrey Elton, Sir John Ross and Sir John Barrow, London: Oxford University Press, 1972

Lloyd, Christopher, Mr Barrow of the Admiralty: A Life of Sir John Barrow, 1764[-]1848, London: Collins, 1970

Proudfoot, William Jardine, Barrow’s Travels in China, London: Philip, 1861

Ross, John, A Letter to John Barrow, Esqu., F.R.S., on the Late Extraordinary and Unexpected Hyperborean Discoveries, London: Pople, 1826

Ross, John, Observations on a Work Entitled “Voyages of Discovery within the Arctic Regions” by Sir John Barrow, Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1846

Vasilii Grigorovich Barskii 1702[-]1747

Ukrainian pilgrim, monk, and diarist

Travel Writing

Pěšechodca Vasiliia Grigoroviča Barskago-Plaki-Albova uroženca kievskago, monacha antiochiiskago, Putešestvie k’sviatym městam, v’Evropě, Azii i Afrikě nachodiaščiisia [The Travels of the Pedestrian Vasilii Grigorovich Barskii of Kiev, Antiochian Monk, to Holy Places in Europe, Asia and Africa], 1778

The first Russian edition published three years after the death of Barskii’s mother.

Stranstvovaniia V.G. Barskogo po sviatym městam Vostoka s 1723 po 1747 [The Travels of Vasilii Grigorovich Barskii to Holy Places in the East from 1723 to 1747], edited by Nikolai Barsukov], 1885[-]89

The standard edition of Barskii’s travel diaries.

Further Reading

Billetta, Rudolf, Der Heilige Berg Athos in Zeugnissen aus sieben Jahrhunderten, vol. 2, Vienna: Mosaic, 1992

Gothóni, René, Tales and Truth: Pilgrimage on Mount Athos Past and Present, Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 1994

Hannick, C., entry on Vasil Barskij Grigorovi in Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. 22, edited by R. Aubert, Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1988

This is the most complete account of Barskii’s biography.

Myl’nikov, A.S., “Die slawischen Kulturen” in Reisen und Reisebeschreibungen im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert als Quellen der Kulturbeziehungsforschung, edited by B.I. Krasnobaev, Gert Robel and Herbert Zeman, Berlin: Camen, 1980

Seeman, Klaus-Dieter, Die altrussische Wallfahrtsliteratur, Munich: Fink, 1976

Stavrou, Theofanis G. and Peter R. Weisensel, Russian Travelers to the Christian East from the Twelfth to the Twentieth Century, Columbus, Ohio: Slavica, 1986

Heinrich Barth 1821[-]1865

German explorer

Travel Writing

Wanderungen durch die Küstenländer des Mittelmeeres, vol. 1: Wanderungen durch das punische und kyrenäische Küstenland, 1849

Reisen und Entdeckungen in Nord- und Central-Africa in den Jahren 1849 bis 1855, 5 vols, 1857[-]58; as Travels in North and Central Africa, 5 vols, 1857[-]58

Reise von Trapezunt durch die nördliche Hälfte Klein-Asiens nach Scutari im Herlost 1858, 1860

Reise durch das Innere der europäischen Turkei, 1864

Further Reading

Ayandele, E.A., “Dr. Henry Barth as a Diplomatist and Philanthropist”, Ibadan, 25 (1968): 9[-]14

Bovill, E.W., “Henry Barth”, Journal of the African Society, 25 (1926): 311[-]20

Bovill, E.W. (editor), Missions to the Niger, 4 vols, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, for the Hakluyt Society, 1964

Bovill, E.W., The Niger Explored, London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1968

Gramont, Sanche de [i.e. Ted Morgan], The Strong Brown God: The Story of the Niger River, London: Hart-Davis Macgibbon, 1975; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976

Kirk-Greene, Anthony H.M. (editor), Barth’s Travels in Nigeria: Extracts from the Journal of Heinrich Barth’s Travels in Nigeria 1850[-]1855, London: Oxford University Press, 1962

Lander, Richard and John Lander, Journal of an Expedition to Explore the Course and Termination of the Niger, 3 vols, London: John Murray, 1832; as The Niger Journal of Richard and John Lander, edited and abridged by Robin Hallett, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, and New York: Praeger, 1965

Prothero, R.M., “Heinrich Barth and the Western Sudan”, The Geographical Journal, 124 (1958): 326[-]39

Richardson, James, Travels in the Great Desert of Sahara, 2 vols, London: Richard Bentley, 1848

Rotberg, Robert I. (editor), Africa and Its Explorers: Motives, Methods, and Impact, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970

William Beckford 1760[-]1844

British novelist and travel writer

Travel Writing

Dreams, Waking Thoughts and Incidents, in a Series of Letters, from Various Parts of Europe (published anonymously), 1783; as The Travel Diaries, edited by Guy Chapman, 1928

Italy, With Sketches of Spain and Portugal, in a Series of Letters Written during a Residence in Those Countries, 2 vols, 1834

Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha, 1835; revised edition, 1840

The Journal of William Beckford in Portugal and Spain, 1787[-]1788, edited by Boyd Alexander, 1954

Collection of Beckford’s entries, some of which he revised for Italy: With Sketches of Spain and Portugal.

Further Reading

Alexander, Boyd, England’s Wealthiest Son: A Study of William Beckford, London: Centaur Press, 1962

Brockman, H.A.N., The Caliph of Fonthill, London: W. Laurie, 1956

Chapman, Guy, Beckford, New York: Scribner, 1937; London: Jonathan Cape, 1940

Fothergill, Brian, Beckford of Fonthill, London and Boston: Faber, 1979

The standard biography of Beckford.

Gemmett, Robert J., William Beckford, Boston: Twayne, 1977

Discussion of the travel books.

Gotlieb, Howard B., William Beckford of Fonthill: Writer, Traveller, Collector, Caliph, 1760[-]1848, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Library, 1960

Jack, Malcolm, William Beckford: An English Fidalgo, New York: AMS Press, 1996

Lees-Milne, James, William Beckford, Tisbury: Compton Russell, 1976

Mahmoud, Fatma Moussa, William Beckford of Fonthill, 1760[-]1844. Bicentenary Essays, Cairo: Cairo Studies in English, 1960; Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1972

Melville, Lewis, The Life and Letters of William Beckford of Fonthill, London: Heinemann, 1910; reprinted, Folcroft, Pennsylvania: Folcroft Library Editions, 1970

Mowl, Timothy, William Beckford: Composing for Mozart, London: John Murray, 1998

Examines Beckford’s creation of his own myth.

Oliver, J.W., The Life of William Beckford, London: Oxford University Press, 1932

Ostergard, Derek (editor), William Beckford; 1760[-]1844: An Eye for the Magnificent, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2001

Considers Beckford’s life and the aesthetic principles that guided him in assembly and designing his collection of Asian, Islamic, and European art and objects.

Redding, Cyrus, Memoirs of William Beckford of Fonthill, 2 vols, London: Skeet, 1859

Contains autobiographical anecdotes that Beckford related to Redding.

Beijing (Peking)

Travel Writing

Barrow, John, Travels in China: Containing Descriptions, Observations, and Comparisons, Made and Collected in the Course of a Short Residence at the Imperial Palace of Yuen-min-yuen, and on a Subsequent Journey through the Country from Pekin to Canton, 1804

Beauvoir, Simone de, La Longue Marche: essai sur la Chine, 1957; as The Long March, translated by Austryn Wainhouse, 1958

Bell, John, A Journey from St Petersburg to Pekin, 1719[-]22, edited by J.L. Stevenson, 1965

Bodde, Derk, Peking Diary: A Year of Revolution, 1950

Gordon-Cumming, Constance Frederica, Wanderings in China, 2 vols, 1886

Greene, Felix, Awakened China: The Country Americans Don’t Know, 1961; as The Wall Has Two Sides: A Portrait of China Today, 1962

Greene, Felix, A Curtain of Ignorance: How the American Public Has Been Misinformed about China, 1964

Guillain, Robert, 600 Millions de chinois sous le drapeau rouge, 1956; as 600 Million Chinese, translated Mervyn Savill, 1957; as The Blue Ants: 600 Million Chinese under the Red Flag, 1957

Ides, Evert Ysbrants, Three Years Travels from Moscow Over-land to China: … To which is Annexd an Accurate Description of China by a Chinese Author [D.Kdo], 1706

Kristof, Nicholas D. and Sheryl WuDunn, China Wakes: The Struggle for the Soul of a Rising Power, 1994; new edition, 1998

Leys, Simon, Chinese Shadows, 1977

Li, Chih-Ch’ang, The Travels of an Alchemist: The Journey of the Taoist Ch’ang-Ch’un from China to the Hindukush at the Summons of Chingiz Khan, Recorded by His Disciple Li Chih-Ch’ang, translated by Arthur Waley, 1931; reprinted, 1963

Little, Archibald, The Far East, 1905

Little, Archibald, Gleanings from Fifty Years in China, 1910

Mirsky, Jeannette (editor), The Great Chinese Travelers: An Anthology, 1964

Pimentel, Francisco, Breve relação da jornada que fez à corte de Pekim o senhor Manoel de Saldanha, embaixador extraordinario del rey de Portugal ao emperador da China, e Tartaria (1667[-]1670), edited by C.R. Boxer and J.M. Braga, 1942

Polo, Marco, The Travels of Marco Polo, translated by Ronald Latham, 1958

Ricci, Matteo, China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Matthew Ricci, 1583[-]1610, translated by Louis J. Gallagher, 1953

Schell, Orville, Watch Out for the Foreign Guests! China Encounters the West, 1980

Schell, Orville, To Get Rich is Glorious: China in the Eighties, 1984; revised edition, 1986

Schell, Orville, Discos and Democracy: China in the Throes of Reform, 1988

Snow, Edgar, Red Star over China, 1937; revised edition, 1968

Snow, Edgar, The Other Side of the River: Red China Today, 1962

Stucki, Lorenz, Behind the Great Wall: An Appraisal of Mao’s China, 1965

Strassberg, Richard E. (translator and editor), Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing from Imperial China, 1994

Yule, Henry (translator and editor), Cathay and the Way Thither, Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, new edition, revised by Henri Cordier, 4 vols, 1913[-]16

Further Reading

Cameron, Nigel, Barbarians and Mandarins: Thirteen Centuries of Western Travelers in China, New York: Walker, 1970

Fogel, Joshua A., The Literature of Travel in the Japanese Rediscovery of China, 1862[-]1945, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1996

Hollander, Paul, Political Pilgrims: Travels of Western Intellectuals to the Soviet Union, China, and Cuba, 1928[-]1978, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981

Mackerras, Colin, Western Images of China, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1989

Mungello, D.E., The Great Encounter of China and the West, 1500[-]1800, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999

Spence, Jonathan D., The Chan’s Great Continent: China in Western Minds, New York: Norton, 1998; London: Allen Lane, 1999

Thurin, Susan Schoenbauer, Victorian Travelers and the Opening of China, 1842[-]1907, Athens: Ohio University Press, 1999

Wills, John E., Jr, Embassies and Illusions: Dutch and Portuguese Envoys to K’ang-hsi, 1666[-]1687, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1984

Wood, Frances, Did Marco Polo Go to China?, London: Secker and Warburg, 1995; Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1996

Gertrude Bell 1868[-]1926

British traveller, diplomat, and amateur archaeologist

Travel Writing:

Safar Nameh: Persian Pictures: A Book of Travel, 1894; as Persian Pictures, 1928

The Desert and the Sown, 1907; with an introduction by Sarah Graham-Brown, 1985; as Syria: The Desert and the Sown, 1907

The Thousand and One Churches, with W.M. Ramsay, 1909

“The Churches and Monasteries of Tur Abdin” in Amida, by Max van Berchem, 1910

Amurath to Amurath: Travels in Asia Minor and Persia, 1911

“Damascus”, Blackwood’s Magazine, 189 (April 1911)

“Asiatic Turkey under the Constitution”, Blackwood’s Magazine, 190 (October 1911)

“Post-Road through the Syrian Desert”, Living Age, 280 (7 and 21 February 1914): 329[-]43 and 458[-]69

The Palace and Mosque at Ukhaidir: A Study in Early Mohammadan Architecture, 1914

Further Reading

Bell, Gertrude, The Letters of Gertrude Bell, edited by Florence Bell, 2 vols, London: Benn, and New York: Liveright, 1927

Bell, Gertrude, The Earlier Letters of Gertrude Bell, edited by Elsa Richmond, London: Benn, and New York: Liveright, 1937

Birkett, Dea, Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers, Oxford and New York: Blackwell, 1989

Burgoyne, Elizabeth, Gertrude Bell, 2 vols, London: Benn, 1958[-]61

Goodman, Susan, Gertrude Bell, Leamington Spa and Dover, New Hampshire: Berg, 1985

Kamm, Josephine, Daughter of the Desert: The Story of Gertrude Bell, London: Bodley Head, 1956; as Gertrude Bell, Daughter of the Desert, New York: Vanguard Press, 1956

Marshall, Caroline, “Gertrude Bell: Her Work and Influence in the Near East 1914[-]1926” (dissertation), Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 1968

Ridley, M.R., Gertrude Bell, London: Blackie, 1941

Said, Edward W., Orientalism, New York: Pantheon, and London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978; with new afterword, New York: Vintage, 1994, London: Penguin, 1995

Wallach, Janet, Desert Queen: The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell, New York: Doubleday, 1996

Winstone, H.V.F, Gertrude Bell, London: Jonathan Cape, 1978

John Bell 1691[-]1780

British diplomat, merchant, and traveller

Travel Writing

Travels from St Petersburg in Russia to Diverse Parts of Asia, 2 vols, 1763

A Journey from St Petersburg to Pekin, 1719[-]22, edited by J.L. Stevenson, 1965

The only modern edition of Bell’s work, from which citations in the text are derived.

Further Reading

Cross, Anthony, By the Banks of the Neva: Chapters from the Lives and Careers of the British in Eighteenth-Century Russia, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997

Pritchard, Earl H., “The Kotow in the Macartney Embassy to China in 1793”, Far Eastern Quarterly, 2/2 (1943): 163[-]203

Spillane, John D., Medical Travellers: Narratives from the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1984

Stanton, J.W., “Russian Embassies to Peking during the Eighteenth Century” in University of Michigan Historical Essays, edited by A.E.R. Boak, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1937

Benjamin of Tudela, 12th century

Jewish traveller

Travel Writing

Masa’ot shel Rabi Binyamin / Itinerarium D. Beniaminis, 1633

Parallel Hebrew and Latin text.

The Itinerary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, edited and translated by A. Asher, 2 vols, 1840[-]41

English translation, with annotations.

The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela, edited and translated by Marcus Nathan Adler, 1907

Contains an introductory essay, English translation, and critical edition of the Hebrew text. References to Benjamin’s Travels are to this edition.

Further Reading

Amichai, Yehuda, Travels, translated from the Hebrew by Ruth Nevo, New York: Sheep Meadow Press, 1986

Bilingual edition of Amichai’s From Travels of a Latter-Day Benjamin of Tudela.

Benjamin, Sandra, The World of Benjamin of Tudela: A Medieval Mediterranean Travelogue, Rutherford, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, and London: Associated University Presses, 1995

An attempt to recreate “all that he saw” by interspersing imaginative passages within Benjamin’s text, unfortunately marred by terminological errors.

Levanon, Yosef, The Jewish Travellers in the Twelfth Century, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1980

A good discussion of the accounts of three contemporary European travellers, including Benjamin of Tudela.

Levi, Jonathan, A Guide for the Perplexed, New York: Turtle Bay Books, 1992

In this novel, Levi, cofounder of the British literary quarterly Granta, weaves together allusions to Benjamin of Tudela and his close contemporary Maimonides, author of the original Guide for the Perplexed.

Mendele Mocher Seforim, The Travels and Adventures of Benjamin the Third, translated by Moshe Spiegel, New York: Schocken, 1949

A satire on Jewish shtetl life in the 19th century, in the form of a book of travels. Benjamin of Tudela was the “first” Benjamin; Joseph Israel Benjamin, an early 19th-century Yiddish travel writer, was the “second”.

James Gordon Bennett, Jr

American newspaper owner and expedition financier

Travel Writing

Although Bennett wrote no books himself, he was one of the most influential figures in the world of newspapers in the late 19th century. It was Bennett’s sponsorship of various expeditions that allowed the following books to be written.

De Long, Emma (editor), The Voyage of the Jeannette: The Ship and Ice Journals of George W. De Long, 1883

Posthumous publication of the diaries of the explorer from his North Pole expedition, which culminated in his death from cold and starvation in the Lena delta.

Gilder, William, Schwatka’s Search: Sledging in the Arctic in Quest of the Franklin Records, 1881

Gilder, William, Ice-Pack and Tundra, 1883

Gilder, like Bennett, understood that sensational accounts of travel and exploration were more likely to sell than ones that were boringly successful.

MacGahan, J.A., Under the Northern Lights, 1896

A wonderfully written tale of a relatively unexciting expedition.

Melville, George W., In the Lena Delta, 1884

Melville condemns Bennett and his reporters for their actions in exhuming the dead explorers on the Jeannette expedition.

Stanley, Henry Morton, How I Found Livingstone, 1872

Stanley’s book about his journey to find the missing Scottish medical missionary and explorer David Livingstone.

Stanley, Henry Morton, Through the Dark Continent, 1878

The account of Stanley’s crossing of Africa, including his investigations of Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika and his following the Congo River to its mouth.

Further Reading

Crockett, Albert Stevens, When James Gordon Bennett Was Caliph of Bagdad, New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1926

A light-hearted account of Bennett and The New York Herald by one of his long0term employees.

Guttridge, Leonard F., Icebound: The Jeannette Expedition’s Quest for the North Pole, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1986

Modern account of the expedition and the role of Bennett in it.

O’Connor, Richard, The Scandalous Mr Bennett, New York: Doubleday, 1962

An informal biography that looks at the wild personal life of the newspaper proprietor.

Riffenburgh, Beau, “James Gordon Bennett, The New York Herald, and the Arctic”, Polar Record, 27/160 (1991): 9[-]16

A summary of Bennett’s interest in exploration and its sponsorship by The New York Herald.

Riffenburgh, Beau, The Myth of the Explorer: The Press, Sensationalism, and Geographical Discovery, London: Scott Polar Research Institute, and New York: St Martin’s Press, 1993

An examination of the relationship between the popular press and exploration in the 19th century, with Bennett one of the focal points.

Seitz, Don C., The James Gordon Bennetts: Father and Son, Proprietors of the New York Herald, Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1928

An intelligent, but anecdotal, account of Bennett and his father by a well-known journalist and biographer.

Vitus Bering 1681[-]1741

Danish explorer and navigator

Travel Writing

“Ekspeditsiia v Kamchatku Kapitana ot Flota Beringa” [Fleet Captain Bering’s Expedition to Kamchatka] in Ekspeditsiia Beringa: Sbornik dokumentov [Bering’s Expeditions: A Collection of Documents], edited by A.A. Pokrovskii, 1941

Bering’s report on his first expedition in original Russian. The volume also contains many other documents related to Bering’s voyages.

Further Reading

Dmytryshyn, Basil, E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughan and Thomas Vaughan (editors), To Siberia and Russian America: Three Centuries of Russian Eastward Expansion, 3 vols, Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1985[-]89

Translated Russian sources on Russian exploration and expansion in the Far East and North Pacific, including travel accounts.

Golder, F.A., Bering’s Voyages: An Account of the Efforts of the Russians to Determine the Relation of Asia and America, 2 vols, New York: American Geographical Society, 1922[-]25

Contains English translations of Bering’s short report of the first voyage, the St Peter’s journals from the second voyage, kept by officers Kh. Iushin and S. Khitrov, and Aleksei Chirikov’s journal (St Paul) from second voyage.

Khitrov, S., “Vypiski iz sudovogo zhurnala, vedennogo na paket-bote Sv. Petr S. Khitrovo” [Extracts from the Ship’s Journal Kept by S. Khitrov on the St Peter] in Ekspeditsiia Beringa: Sbornik dokumentov [Bering’s Expeditions: A Collection of Documents], edited by A.A. Pokrovskii, Moscow: Glavnoe Arkhivnoe Upravlenie NKVD, 1941

Extracts of Lt Khitrov’s journal in Russian.

Krasheninnikov, S.P., Opisanie zemli Kamchatka [Description of the Land of Kamchatka], 4th edition, Moscow and Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo Glavsevmorputi, 1949; as Explorations of Kamchatka, 1735[-]1741, translated by E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughan, Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1972

Steller, Georg Wilhelm, Reise von Kamtschatka nach Amerika [Voyage from Kamchatka to America], edited by Hanno Beck, Stuttgart: Brockhaus, 1974

Steller, Georg Wilhelm, Journal of a Voyage with Bering, 1741[-]1742, edited and with an introduction by O.W. Frost, translated by Margritt A. Engel and O.W. Frost, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1988

Journal of Bering’s second voyage kept by scientific adjunct Steller. A very lively account.

Vakhtin, V.V., Russkie truzheniki moria [Russian Toilers of the Sea], St Petersburg: Morskoe Ministerstvo, 1890

Contains extracts from journals of Chaplin and Chirikov, officers on Bering’s first expedition.

Waxell, Sven, The American Expedition, translated by M.A. Michael, London: Hodge, 1952

Account of the St Peter’s second officer for the second expedition, in English translation.


Travel Writing

Bancroft, George, The Life and Letters of George Bancroft, 2 vols, edited by M.A. De Wolfe Howe, 1908

Boswell, James, Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland, 1764, edited by Frederick A. Pottle, 1953

Chateaubriand, François René de, Mémoires d’outre-tombe, 1849[-]50; as The Memoirs of François René, Vicomte de Chateaubriand, translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos, 1902

Eliot, George, George Eliot’s Life: As Related in Her Letters and Journals, 3 vols, edited by John W. Cross, 1885

Fontane, Theodor, Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg [Excursions through Mark Brandenburg], 4 vols, 1862[-]82

Giraudoux, Jean, Rues et visages de Berlin, 1930

Heine, Heinrich, Briefe aus Berlin, 1827; in Heine in Art and Letters, translated by Elizabeth A. Sharp, 1895

Hergesheimer, Joseph, Berlin, 1932

Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind 1929[-]1939, 1976

Nicolai, Friedrich, Beschreibung der königlichen Residenzstädte Berlin und Potsdam, aller daselbst befindlicher Merkwürdigkeiten, und der umliegenden Gegend [Description of the Imperial Cities Berlin and Potsdam, Their Peculiarities, and Their Environs], 1769; revised, 1779

Spender, Stephen, World within World, 1951

Toland, John, An Account of the Courts of Prussia and Hannover: Sent to a Minister of State in Holland, 1705

Vizetelly, Henry, Berlin under the New Empire: Its Institutions, Inhabitants, Industry, Monuments, Museums, Social Life, Manners, and Amusements, 2 vols, 1879

Voltaire, Les Oeuvres complètes, edited by Theodore Besterman et al., 1968

Further Reading

Glass, Derek, Dietmar Rösler and John J. White (editors), Berlin: Literary Images of a City: Eine Grossstadt im Spiegel der Literatur, Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1989

Helbig, Jörg (editor), Welcome to Berlin: Das Image Berlins in der englischsprachigen Welt von 1700 bis heute, Berlin: Stapp, 1987

Sprengel, Peter (editor), Berlin-Flaneure: Stadt-Lektüren in Roman und Feuilleton 1910[-]1930, Berlin: Weidler, 1998

François Bernier 1620[-]1688

French physician and traveller in India

Travel Writing

Histoire de la dernière Revolution des États du Grand Mogol, 1670 (first part of his travel account); Evenemens particuliers, où cequi s’est passé de plus considerable après la guerre pendant cinq ans, ou environ, dans les États du grans Mogol, 1670; Suite des Mémoires sur l’empire du Grand Mogol, 1671; together in 2 vols as Voyages de François Bernier, contenant la description des états du grand-mogol, 1699; numerous reprints and editions including Voyage dans Les États du Grand Mogol, with an introduction de F. Bhattacharya, 1981

The History of the Late Revolution of the Empire of the Great Mogol, 1671; Particular Events; or the Most Considerable Passages after the War of Five Years, or thereabout, in the Empire of the Great Mogol, 1671; A continuation of the Memoires …Concerning the Empire of the Great Mogol, 1672

Travels in the Mogul Empire, translated from the French by Irving Brock, 2 vols, 1826

Bernier’s Travels, Comprehending a Description of the Mogul Empire, translated from the French by John Stewart, 1826

Travels in the Mogul Empire, a.d. 1656[-]1668, revised and improved edition based on Irving Brock’s translation, and annotated by Archibald Constable, 1891; 2nd edition revised by Vincent A. Smith, 1916

Further Reading

Amant, R. d’, entry on François Bernier in Dictionnaire de Biographie Française, 6 (1954):

Gode, P.K., Bernier and Kavīndrācārya Sarasvatī”, Journal of Sri Venkateswar Oriental Institute, Tirupati, 1/4: 1[-]16

Morison, Th., “Minute by M. Bernier upon the Establishment of Trade in the Indies, dated 10th March, 1668, found and translated by T.M.”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, (1933): 1[-]21 (with a note by J. Ph. Vogel, ibid. 411)

Oaten, Edward Farley, European Travellers in India, London: Kegan Paul, 1909; reprinted, New York: AMS Press, 1971

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