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Abad, Gabriel. Part-time lecturer, English, French and German Department, University of Málaga. Contributed to Encyclopedia of Life Writing edited by Margaretta Jolly (2001), Encyclopedia of Postcolonial Studies edited by John Hawley (2001), Violencia y Género: Actas del Congreso Interdisciplinar, edited by Maria Teresa López Beltrán et al. (2001), Solidaridad y Ciudadanía (1999), and Progreso Humano, Derechos Humanos (1999). Essays: Undersea Exploration.

Abdel-Hakim, Sahar Sobhi..Lecturer in English and Comparative Cultural Studies, Cairo University. Contributor to The Arabs and Britain: Changes and Exchanges (1998), Translation, edited by M. Enani and M. Abdel-Atty (1999), Interpreting the Orient: Travellers in Egypt and the Near East, edited by Paul and Janet Starkey (2001), Egypt through the Eyes of Travellers, edited by Paul Starkey and Nadia el-Kholy (2001), Modernism and Postmodernism: East and West (2001). Also to the journal Cairo Studies in English: Journal of the Department of English. Essays: Egypt, Islamic Travelers.

Adamo, Sergia, Lecturer, University of Trieste, Italy. Author of Dostoevskij in Italia (1998) and Ritratti di una citta' gentilissima e commerciale. Viaggiatori a Trieste tra Settecento e Novecento (2002). Contributor to Dizionario dei temi letterari, edited by R. Ceserani et al.(forthcoming), Translation Script Literacy edited by L. D'hulst and J. Milton (2000), Lo sguardo che viene da lontano. L'alterita' e le sue letture edited by E. Kanceff (2001). Also contributed articles to the journals Problemi, Comparatistica, Interlitteraria, Comparative World Report, among others. Essays: Ramusio; Russia; Sassetti

Alford, Steven. Professor of Liberal Arts, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Author of Irony and the Logic of the Romantic Imagination (1984). Contributor to British Travel Writers 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1999). Essays: Motorcycles.

Allen, Nina.. Senior Lecturer in English, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts.Author of "Gendered Travel Writing: The Case of M.F.K. Fisher" presented at Snapshots Abroad: A Conference on American and British Travel Writers and Writing (1997); "The American Scene According to Emily Faithfull, Victorian Feminist" presented at Writing the Journey: A Conference on American, British, and Anglophone Travel Writers and Travel Writing (1999). Essays: Women Travellers: 20th century.

Amigoni, David. Senior lecturer in English, Keele University. Author of Victorian Biography: Intellectuals and the Ordering of Discourse (1993), The English Novel and Prose Narrative (2000). Editor of Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species": New Interdisciplinary Essays (with Jeff Wallace,1995), Victorian Culture and the Idea of the Grotesque (with others, 1999). Essays: Darwin; Wallace.

Anderson, Sarah . Independent writer and scholar based in London. Owner of the Travel Bookshop in London. Author of Anderson's Travel Companion: A Guide to the Best Non-Fiction and Fiction for Travelling (1975) and the Virago Book of Spirituality: of Women and Angels (1996); and Inside Notting Hill (2001) and of many travel articles and book reviews. Was for many years judge for the Thomas Cool Travel Book Award. Essays: Stephens and Catherwood.

Araújo, Horácio. Assistant Professor of Portuguese Literature, Universidade Católica de Lisboa. Author of Língua Portuguesa (1992). Contributor to Literatura De Viagem - Narrativa, História, Mito (1997), Viagens No Texto E No Tempo (1998), Condicionantes culturais da literatura le viagens (1999), and Indagación: revista de história y arte. Editor of Ásia Extrema (1995) and Cartas Ânuas da China (1636, 1643 to 1649) (1998). Essays: Jesuit Narratives: Eastern Missions; Ricci.

Arnold, Guy. Independent writer and scholar based in London. Author of Kenyatta and the Politics of Kenya (1974), Heldfast for England: G.A. Henty, Imperialist Boys' Writer (1980), Britain since 1945 (1989), Brainwash: The Cover-Up Society (1992), and Wars in the Third World since 1945 (2nd edition, 1995). Also of numerous articles on African and third-world development in the journals West Africa, African Development, New Society, Middle East and the Economist Intelligence Unit. Essays:: Danube River; Sudan.

Asfour, Mohammad. Dean, Faculty of Arts, and Professor in the Department of English, University of Jordan. Contributed to Dirasat (1978), Notes on Rasselas (1981), Papers from the First Conference on the Problems of Teaching English Language and Literature at Arab Universities, edited by M.H. Ibrahím and Eid Dahiyat (1983), Dirasat (1985), Reading On: An Anthology for Students of Literature (1990), Ihsán Abbás, edited by Ibráhím al-Sacáfín (1997), Zaytúnat al-Manfá [Olive of Exile] edited by Jiryis Samáwí (1998), and Husám al-Khatíb Festschrift edited by Mohammad Sháheen (forthcoming). Editor of The Fourth International Conference on the History of Bilád al-Shám During the Byzantine Period (with Adnán al-Bakhít, 1986). Essays: Ibn Battuta.

Baker, William. Professor, Department of English, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb. Author of Literary Theories: A Case Study in Critical Performance (with Julian Wolfreys, 1996), Twentieth-Century Bibliography and Textual Criticism (with Kenneth Womack, 2000), Wilkie Collins's Library: A Reconstruction (2001), and George Eliot: A Bibliographical History (with John C. Ross, forthcoming). Also contributed numerous articles to journals including Studies in Bibliography, The Library, Essays in Criticism, and Victorian Studies. Editor of Sir Walter Scott's Tales of a Grandfather: The History of France (with J.H. Alexander, 1996), The Letters of Wilkie Collins (with William M. Clarke, 1999), The Letters of George Henry Lewes (1995[-]),The Year's Work in English Studies (with Kenneth Womack, 2000), and George Eliot's, Felix Holt: The Radical (with Kenneth Womack, 2000). Essays: Kinglake.

Barker, Robert. Doctoral candidate and lecturer, Department of Spanish and Latin American Studies, University College London. Contributed to the journal Rumbos: The Chroniclers and the Historical Problems They Created (forthcoming). Essays: Pizarro.

Barr, William. Research Associate, Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary. Author of Back from the Brink: The Road to Muskox Conservation in the Northwest Territories (1991), The Expeditions of the First International Polar Year, 1882[-]83 (1985). Contributor to Naval History: The Seventh Symposium of the U.S. Naval Academy edited by W.B. Cogar (1988), Canada's Missing Dimension: Science and History in the Canadian Arctic Islands edited by C.R. Harington (1990), The Soviet Maritime Arctic edited by Lawson W. Brigham (1991), Imaging the Arctic edited by J.C.H. King and Henrietta Lidchi (with D. Walmsley 1998), Pacific Empires: Essays in Honour of Glyndwr Williams edited by Alan Frost and Jane Samson (1999). Editor of A Frenchman in Search of Franklin: De Bray's Arctic Journal, 1852[-]1854 (1992), To the Sixth Continent: The Second German South Polar Expedition, (1911[-]1913) (1994), Voyages to Hudson Bay in Search of a Northwest Passage, 1741[-]1747 (with Glyndwr Williams, 2 vols 1994[-]95), and Searching for Franklin: The Land Arctic Searching Expedition, 1855: James Anderson's and James Stewart's Expedition via the Back River (1999). Contributor to the journals Arctic, Aspects (Journal of the Newfoundland Historical Society), Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Canadian Geographic, Earth Sciences History, Geographical Journal, Manitoba History, Polar Geography and Geology, Polar Record, Terrae Incognitae, and The Beaver. Essays:: Amundsen; Back; Nansen; Ross, James; Ross, John; Stefansson; Ushakov.

Bassnett, Susan. Professor of Comparative Literary Studies and Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Warwick. Author of more than 20 books including Translation Studies (1991), Comparative Literature: A Critical Introduction (1993), and Constructing Cultures (1998), and editor of Post-colonial Translation (with Harish Trivedi, 1999). Regular contributor to national newspapers. Essays: Introduction.

Baumgärtner, Ingrid. Professor of Medieval History, University of Kassel. Author of Martinus Garatus Laudensis: Ein italienischer Rechtsgelehrter des 15. Jahrhunderts (1986). Editor of Consilia im späten Mittelalter. Zum historischen Aussagewert einer Quellengattung (1995), Kunigunde: eine Kaiserin an der Jahrtausendwende (1997), Legal Consulting in the Civil Law Tradition (with others, 1999), Nordhessen im Mittelalter (with W. Schich, 2001), Die Rezeption des gelehrten Rechts im Regnum teutonicum (with P. Johanek, 2002, in print). Contributed to Mittelalter und Moderne, edited by P. Segl (1997), Hochmittelalterliches Geschichtsbeusstsein im Spiegel nichthistoriographisch Quellen edited by H.-W. Goetz (1998), Das Verdämmern der Macht, edited by R. Lorenz (2000), Juristische Buchproduktion im Mittelalter edited by V. Colli (2002), The Hereford and Other Mappaemundi edited by P.M. Barber and P.D.A. Harvey (2002), and Jerusalem im lateinischen Westen (and other volumes) edited by H. D. Bauer with others (2001). Also a contributor to many journals including Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Historisches Jahrbuch, Journal of Medieval History among others. Essays: Conti.

Baylis, Gail. Part-time lecturer, Departments of English and Irish Studies, Media and Performing Arts, University of Ulster. Contributor to The Internationalism of Irish Literature and Drama edited by Joseph McMinn (1992), Introducing Literary Studies edited by Richard Bradford (1996), The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature edited by Robert Welch (1996), and the New Dictionary of National Bibliography (forthcoming). Essays: Caribbean: post 1700; England: 17th and 18th centuries; England: 19th century; Picaresque Novels; Smollett.

Behdad, Ali. Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literature at University of California, Los Angeles. Author of Belated Travelers: Orientalism in the Age of Colonial Dissolution (1994) and The Forgetful Nation: Reflections on Immigration and Cultural Identity in the United States (forthcoming) and numerous essays on European travel literature, (post)colonial literature and theory. Essays: Orientalism.

Berghof, Oliver. Associate Professor, Literature and Writing Studies, California State University, San Marcos. Editor of A Voyage around the World by George Forster (with Nicholas Thomas, 2000). Specialist in 18th and early 19th-century European literature and literature of the Pacific. Essays: Forster, George; Seume; Tahiti.

Betz, Dorothy M. Associate Professor, Department of French, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Contributor to Victor Hugo I: approches critiques contemporaines, edited by Michel Grimaud (1994), Masterplots II: Short Story edited by Frank Magill (1996), Masterplots: Twentieth Century edited by Frank Magill (1996) and the journals Romance Quarterly, The Explicator, Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, Romance Notes. Associate Editor of Romance Quarterly and reviewer for that journal and The French Review, among others. Essays: Chateaubriand; Nerval.

Bilal, Kolby W. Graduate student, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia. Researching African-American participation in the Virginia State Navy and the British Navy in Virginia during the Revolutionary War. Interested in the politics of mobility, with special reference to African-Americans. Essays: Byrd.

Birkwood, Susan. Instructor, Mount Royal College, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Author of "Different Sides of the Picture: Four Women's Views of Canada" (doctoral dissertation, 1997). Editor of an annotated edition of Anne Cuthbert Knight's 1816 long poem A Year in Canada (forthcoming). Contributed the article "True or False: Anna Jameson on the Position of Women in European and in Anishinaubae society" to Nineteenth-Century Feminisms (Spring 2000). Essays: Jameson.

Bishop, Peter. Associate Professor, School of Communications, Information & New Media, University of South Australia. Author of The Myth of Shangri-la: Tibet, Travel Writing and the Western Creation of Sacred Landscape (1989), Dreams of Power: Tibetan Buddhism and the Western Imagination (1993), An Archetypal Constable: National Identity and the Geography of Nostalgia (1995). Contributor to Sacred Spaces and Powerful Places in Tibetan Culture edited by Toni Huber (1999), edited Imagining Tibet by T. Dodin and H. Rather (2001), Constructing Tibetan Culture: Contemporary Perspectives edited by Frank J. Korom (1997). Also contributed articles to the journals Australian Journal of Communication, Studies in Travel Writing, Literature & History, Environment & Planning D: Society & Space, Ecumene, Landscape Research, and The Tibet Journal. Essays: Tibet.

Boavida, Isabel. Researcher, Centro de Estudos de Além-Mar, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Contributor to O Rosto feminino da expansão portuguesa (1995) and the journals Mare Liberum and Arquipélago. Essays: Caminha; Lobo.

Boening, John. Professor of English and Comparative Literature, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio. Contributor to Actes du VIIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée (1980), Johann Gottfried Herder: Language, History, and the Enlightenment edited by Wulf Koepke (1990), Parodia, Pastiche, Mimetismo edited by Paola Mildonian (1997), Cultural Dialogue and Misreading edited by Yue Dai-Yun and Mabel Lee (1998), British Travel Writers, 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1999) and The Paths of Multiculturalism: Travel Writing and Postcolonialsim (2000), ed. M.-A. Seixo et al. Editor of The Reception of Classical German Literature in England, 1760[-]1860 (1977), and Space and Boundaries in Literature/L'Espace et frontiéres dans la littérature, vol. 2 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association (with others, 1990). Contributor of numerous articles and reviews on Anglo-German literary relations, comparative literary studies, and contemporary literature to Internationales Archive für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur, Lessing Yearbook, Comparative Literature Studies, Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature, Arcadia, World Literature Today, Canadian Review of Comparative Literature, and Journal of European Studies. Essays: Greene.

Bohls, Elizabeth A. Associate Professor of English, University of Oregon, Eugene. Author of Women Travel Writers and the Language of Aesthetics, 1716[-]1818 (1995). Contributor to The Country and the City Revisited: England and the Politics of Culture, 1550[-]1850, edited by Gerald MacLean and others (1999), Eighteenth-Century Aesthetics and the Reconstruction of Art edited by Paul Mattick, Jr (1993) and to the journals European Romantic Review, Eighteenth-Century Studies, Eighteenth-Century Life. Essays: Wollstonecraft.

Borm, Jan. Associate Professor in English at the University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines. Editor of Bruce Chatwin's posthumous collection Anatomy of Restlessness ((with others, 1996). Contributor to Issues in Travel Writing: Empire, Spectacle and Displacement edited by Kristi Siegel (forthcoming), Gulliver's Travels edited by Georges Lamoine (2001), Etats de New York edited by Antoine Capet et al. (2000), Cartes, paysages, territoires edited by Ronald Shusterman (2000). Also contributed articles to the journals Etudes britanniques contemporaines, In'hui, Interfaces, Studies in Travel Writing. Essays: O'Hanlon.

Bowden, Betsy. Professor of English, Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey. Author of Performed Literature (Words and Music) by Bob Dylan (2001), Listeners' Guide to Medieval English: A Discography (1988), Chaucer Aloud: The Varieties of Textual Interpretation (1987). Editor of Eighteenth-Century Modernizations from the Canterbury Tales (1991). Contributor to Folklore Interpreted edited by Regina Bendix and Rosemary Zumwaltt (1995), The Ellesmere Chaucer: Essays in Interpretation edited by Daniel Woodward and Martin Stevens (1995) and the journals Notes & Queries, Harvard Library Bulletin, Oral Tradition, Journal of American Folklore, Translation and Literature, among others. Essays: Chaucer; Horseback; Pilgrimage: Christian.

Bradlow, Frank R. Deceased. Was Chairman of the Van Riebeeck Society, Cape Town. Author (with Edna Bradlow) of Thomas Bowler of the Cape of Good Hope (1955), Here Comes the Alabama (1958), Baron von Ludwig and the Ludwigsburg Garden (1965), Thomas Bowler, His Life and Work (1976), The Early Cape Muslims (with Margaret Cairns, 1975), Africana Books and Pictures (1975), The Contribution of Thomas Baines to South Africa (1975), Wm. Somerville's Narrative of His Journey to the Eastern Cape Frontier and to Lattaoke, 1799[-]1802 (with Edna Bradlow, 1979). Contributed to many books and journals. Essays: Baines.

Brennan, Michael. Reader in Renaissance Studies, School of English, University of Leeds. Author of Literary Patronage in the English Renaissance: The Pembroke Family (1988). Editor of Lady Mary Wroth's Love's Victory: The Penshurst Manuscript (1988), The Travel Diary (1611[-]1612) of an English Catholic, Sir Charles Somerset (1993), of The Collected Works of Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke (with Margaret P. Hannay and Noel J. Kinnamon, 1998), The Travel Diary of Robert Bargrave, Levant Merchant, 1647[-]1656 (1999). Contributor of several articles on literature, patronage, travel writings (especially Western European, the Levant, and the New World), bibliography, women writers, and the Sidney and Herbert families in the period 1500[-]1750 to journals including Analytical & Enumerative Bibliography, Archaeologia Cantiana, Cahiers Elisabethains, Catholic History Review, Connotations, English Manuscript Studies 1100[-]1700, Garden History, The Library, Music and Letters, Notes and Queries, Paris et Ile-De-France Mémoires, Restoration and 18th Century Theatre Research, Review of English Studies, Sidney Journal, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, University College Record, and Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine. Essays: David; France: pre-revolutionary; Istanbul; Ogilby; Peter Martyr; Shackleton, and Thévenot.

Bridges, Roy. Emeritus Professor of History, University of Aberdeen. Editor of second edition of J.L. Krapf's Travels, Researches and Missionary Labours, 1858 (1968). Contributor to Africa and its Explorers edited by Robert Rotberg (1970), The Exploitation of Animals in Africa edited by J.C. Stone (1988), The Times Atlas of World Exploration edited by Felipe Fernández-Armesto (1991), Compassing the Vaste Globe of the Earth edited by R.C. Bridges and P.E.H. Hair (1996), Imperialism, Decolonization and Africa edited by Roy Bridges (2000). Author of Newmachar Past and Present (2001) and several articles in the journals Uganda Journal, Geographical Journal, Terrae Incognitae, Paideuma, Studies in Travel Writing. Essays: Bruce; Burchell; Clapperton; Denham; East Africa; Hakluyt Society; Lander; Murchison; White Nile.

Brown, Sharon Rogers. Lecturer, School of Professional Development, State University of New York at Stony Brook. Contributor to North Atlantic Review, American Travel Narratives as a Literary Genre from 1542[-]1832, Reference Guide to American Literature edited by Thomas Riggs (2000), and St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture edited by Tom Pendergast and Sara Pendergast (2000). Essays: Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca.

Burns, William. Independent writer and scholar based in Washington, D.C. Author of The Scientific Revolution: An Encyclopedia (2001), An Age of Wonders: Prodigies, Politics, and Providence in England, 1657-1727 (2002). Contributor to The Millenarian Turn: Millenarian Contexts of Science, Politics, and Everyday Anglo-American Life in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, edited by James Force (2001), Rethinking the Scientific Revolution, edited by Margaret J. Osler (2000), Wonders, Marvels, and Monsters in Early Modern Culture, edited Peter G. Platt (1999). Contributor of several articles in the journals Harvard Theological Review, The Sixteenth Century Journal, Werkstatt Geschichte, Eighteenth Century Women, The Seventeenth Century. Essays: Alexander Dalrymple.

Byrnes, Giselle. Lecturer in Department of history, Victoria University of Wellington. Author of Boundary Markers: Land Surveying and the Colonisation of New Zealand (2001) and several articles on colonial land surveying and exploration and the Treaty claims process. Essays: New Zealand.

Cabellero, Soledad M. Essays: Calderón de la Barca, Frances.

Cabañas, Miguel A. Assistant Professor, Department of Modern Languages and Literatures, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, USA. Contributor to American Women Prose Writers, 1820[-]1870 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 239) edited by Katharine Rodier and Amy Huddock (2001) and to the journals Hispanófila (article on Alfredo Bryce Echenique's Tantas Veces Pedro and the picaresque novel) Revista de Crítica Literaria Latinoamericana (article on El Matadero by Esteban Echeverría), Torre de Papel (article on Miguel de Unamuno's San Manuel Bueno, mártir), and INTI (book reviews). Essays: Martí; Sarmiento.

Cardinal, Roger. Professor of Literary and Visual Studies, School of Arts and Image Studies, University of Kent at Canterbury. Author of Surrealism: Permanent Revelation (with Robert Stuart Short, 1970), Outsider Art (1972), Figures of Reality: A Perspective on the Poetic Imagination (1981), The Landscape Vision of Paul Nash (1989), and Private Worlds: Classic Outsider Art from Europe ((with John Beardsley, 1998). Editor of Sensibility and Creation: Studies in Twentieth-Century French Poetry (1977), Outsiders: An Art without Precedent or Tradition (1979). Editor (with Jas Elsner) of The Cultures of Collecting (1994), and of Messages d'Outre-Monde (with Martine Lusardy, 1999). Contributor to many books including Rewriting the Self: Histories from the Renaissance to the Present edited by Roy Porter (1997), and Publications of the English Goethe Society (1998). Essays: Cendrars; fantasy travel; Ségalen.

Carens, Timothy L. Assistant Professor of English, College of Charleston, South Carolina. Conributor to Reality's Dark Light: The Transgressive Wilkie Collins, edited by Maria Bachman and Donald Cox (2001) and the journals Dickens Studies Annual, Studies in English Literature. Essays: Royal Asiatic Society.

Castillo, Susan. John Nichol Professor of American Literature, University of Glasgow. Author of Notes from the Periphery: Marginality in North American Literature and Culture (1995). Editor of Engendering Identities (with Victor Da Rosa, 1996), and Native American Women in Literature and Culture (1997), and of The Literatures of Colonial America (with Ivy Schweitzer, 2001). Contributor to Writing Lives: American Biography and Autobiography edited by Hans Bak and Hans Krabbendam (1998) and to the journals The Southern Literary Journal, The Yearbook of English Studies, Studies in American Indian Literature. Essays: Lahontan.

Charnley, Joy. Lecturer in French at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. Author of Pierre Bayle: Reader of Travel Literature (1998), and several articles on Pierre Bayle, travel literature and 17th-century French travellers. Essays: Chardin; Léry.

Clarke, Ben. D.Phil candidate, English Faculty, Exeter College, University of Oxford. Contributor to The Road from George Orwell: His Achievement and Legacy edited by Alberto Lázaro (2001). Essays: utopias/dystopias.

Colbert, Benjamin. Senior Lecturer in English, University of Wolverhampton. Author of Shelley's Eye: Travel Writing and Aesthetic Vision (forthcoming) and Volume Editor of British Satire 1785[-]1840 (forthcoming). Essays: Cox; Rhine.

Cole, Maryanne. Essays: Women Travelers, 1500[-]1800.

Collins, Richard. Associate Professor of English, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans. Contributor to John Fante: A Critical Gathering edited by David Fine and Stephen Cooper (1999), John Fante: A Literary Portrait (1999), The Trangressive Wilkie Collins edited by Don Richard Cox and Maria K. Bachman (2001), Songs of the Reconstructing South: Building Literary Louisiana 1865[-]1945 edited by Susan D. Green and Lisa Abney (forthcoming), Encyclopedia of Life Writing edited by Margaretta Jolly (2001), Encyclopedia of American Poetry: 20th Century edited by Eric Haralson (forthcoming). Co-Editor, with Thomas Bonner, of Xavier Review. Contributor to the journals Wilkie Collins Society Journal, MELUS, Studies in the Humanities. Essays: Hearn.

Conlan, J.P. Assistant Professor of English, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan. Author of Marvelous Passages: English Nautical Piety in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (unpublished 1999 dissertation). Contributor to several journals including the Ben Jonson Journal (discussing Shakespeare's unequivocal opposition to colonization in The Tempest), Pacific Coast Philology (outlining Milton's travesty of English colonial rhetoric), Analytical and Enumerative Bibliography (resolving the problem of the Harley Manuscript in the textual history of The Canterbury Tales), and The Journal of the Early Books Society (reviewing books on medieval manuscript culture). Essays: Atlantic Ocean: exploration across.

Constantine, David. Adviser. Fellow in German at the Queen's College, Oxford. Author of Early Greek Travellers and the Hellenic Ideal (1984), Hölderlin (1988), and Fields of Fire: A Life of Sir William Hamilton (2001), among others. Essays: Grand Tour.

Cooper, Nicola. Lecturer, Department of French, Bristol University. Contributor to France at War in the Twentieth Century edited by Debra Kelly and Valerie Holman (2000), and France in Indochina: Colonial Encounters (2001). Contributor to the journals French Cultural Studies (article on Colonial Urbanism in Indochina), Modern and Contemporary France (article on juvenile delinquency and urban violence in France), and Women's Studies International Forum (article on gender and colonialism). Essays: Indochina.

Cox, John D. Teaches American literature and southern American literature at Webb School of Knoxville, Tennessee. Essays: United States: South.

Cronin, Michael. Senior Lecturer, School of Applied Language and Intercultural Studies, Dublin City University. Author of Translating Ireland (1996), and Across the Lines: Travel, Language, Translation (2000). Contributor to Ordinary People Dancing: Essays on Kate O'Brien edited by Eibhear Walshe (1993), Tourism in Ireland: A Critical Analysis edited by Barbara O'Connor and M. Cronin M. (1993), Reisen im Diskurs edited by Anne Fuchs and Theo Harden (1995), Changing the Terms: Translating in the Postcolonial Era edited by Sherry Simon and Paul St-Pierre (2000), and Writing in the Irish Republic: Literature, Culture, Politics 1949[-]1999 edited by Ray Ryan (with Barbara O'Connor, 2000). Editor of Tourism in Ireland: A Critical Analysis (with Barbara O'Connor, 1993),of Nouvelles d'Irlande (with Louis Jolicoeur, 1997), and of Unity in Diversity: New Directions in Translation Studies (with others, 1998). Essays: Bouvier; Foreign Languages; Ireland.

Crook, Keith. Formerly principal lecturer at Anglia Polytechnic University, Cambridge, UK. Author of A Preface to Swift (1998) and editor of Remarks on Antiquities, Arts, and Letters during an excursion in Italy in the years 1802 and 1803 by Joseph Forsyth (2001), articles in Continuum Encyclopedia of British Literature (forthcoming). Essays: Eustace; Forsyth.

Crosthwait, Ginny. Doctoral candidate, Department of English, Rice University, Houston, Texas. Teacher of English and American literature at the University of St Thomas in Houston, Texas. Dissertation is on the Metropolitan Police and the newspaper industry in 19th-century London. Has also written on the gothic novel, 19th-century poetry and music theory, and gender performativity in the prison system. Previously on the editorial staff of Studies in English Literature. Essays: Campbell.

Cruwys, Elizabeth. Senior Research Associate, Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge. Author of Explore Britain's Castles (with Beau Riffenburgh, 1995), British Seals (1996), and The Photographs of H.G. Ponting (with Beau Riffenburgh, 1998). Editor of Teeth and Anthropology (with R. A. Foley, 1986). Contributor to Past Worlds: The Times Atlas of Archaeology edited by Christopher Scarre (1988), Great Voyages of the World (1997), and The Lonely Planet Guide to the Arctic (2000); also contributor to the journals Polar Record, British Medical Journal, Journal of Dental Research, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Archives of Oral Biology, Journal of Palaeopathology, and Current Anthropology. Essays: Antarctica; Greenland; Rasmussen.

Dalal, Anita. Independent scholar based in London. Author of In search of home: the writings of Katherine Anne Porter, Martha Gelhorn, Elizabeth Bishop and Joan Didion in Latin America (unpublished thesis). Essays: Mexico.

Daprini, Pierre. Senior Lecturer in French, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Contributor to Revolution, Society and the Politics of Memory (1996), Europe: Retrospects and Prospects (1996), Modern Europe: Histories and Identities edited by Peter Monteath and Ric Zuckerman (1998), France and the French in the Second World War: French Culture Under the German Occupation (1999), Variété: Perspectives in French Literature edited by Marie Ramsland (1999), The Sphinx in the Tuilleries edited by Robert Aldrich and Martin Lyons (1999). Contributor to New Zealand Journal of French Studies, Australian Journal of French Studies, Literature and War, Perspectives on Modern Literature, Literature and Travel, Perspectives on Modern Literature. Essays: Charcot; Garnier; Loti; Montaigne.

Daraux, Jean-Pierre. Enseiguat Agrégé au department d'Anglais, University de Toulouse-Le-Miral. Editor and translator of James Erskine Murray, Vu éte dans les Pyrénées (1998), and contributor to Le Dictionaaire des Pyrénées (1999). Essays: Pyrenees.

Day, Matthew. Doctoral candidate, York University. Thesis on the works and reception of Richard Hakluyt's works. Essays: Baffin; Chancellor; Hakluyt.

Demata, Massimiliano. Lecturer in English, Mansfield College, University of Oxford. Editor of British Romanticism and the Edinburgh Review. Bicentennary Essays ((with Duncan Wu, forthcoming). Contributor to Notes and Queries (on Byron) and La Questione Romantica (on the Gothic novel). Essays: Howard; Murray (publisher); Society of Dilettanti.

Dennett, Laurie. Chairman, Confraternity of Saint James. Author of A Hug for the Apostle (1987), The Charterhouse Group: A History (1979), Slaughter and May: A Century in the City (1989), Slaughter and May: A Short History (1989), A Sense of Security: 150 Years of the Prudential (1998). Translator of The Pilgrim's Guide to the Camino de Santiago, by Elías Valiña Sampedro (1992). Essays: Santiago de Compostela.

Denslow, Neil. Independent writer and scholar based in Dorset. Contributor to The Encyclopedia of American Studies (2001), Encyclopedia of Radio edited by Christopher H.Sterling (forthcoming) and Encyclopedia of World Minorities (forthcoming). Essays: Cuba; Ecuador; Soviet Union.

der Parthog, Gwynneth. Author of Byzantine and Medieval Cyprus (1995). Essays: Cyprus.

Destot, Guillaume Marcel Henri. Lecturer, English Department, Jean Monnet University, St Etienne. Author of "T.E. Lawrence: Myth, History and Ideology" (unpublished master's thesis, 1998), and "The Intellectual Adventurer: T.E. Lawrence and George Orwell" (unpublished thesis, 2000). Essays: Lawrence, T.E.

Dinneen, Marcia. Visiting Lecturer, Department of English, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Author of "Travel as a Metaphor: Traveling Heroines in Novels by Jane Austen, George Eliot, and the Brontes" (unpublished dissertation, 1994), and contributor to British Travel Writers 1910[-]1939 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 195) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1998), and British Travel Writers 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1999). Contributed articles on Richard Wilbur to the journals Explicator (1991) and Bulletin of Bibliography (1980), and on John Marston's Antonio Plays to Bulletin of Bibliography (1981). Essays: Fodor; Heyerdahl; Muir.

Dinneen, Mark. Lecturer, University of Southampton, United Kingdom. Author of , Culture and Customs of Venezuela (2001), Listening to the People's Voice: Erudite and Popular Literature in North East Brazil (1996). Editor of Brazilian Woodcut Prints (2001). Contributor to Encyclopedia of Life Writing, edited by Margaretta Jolly (2001), Fiction of the Portuguese World, edited by C.M. Kelly (2000), Encyclopedia of Literary Translation, edited by O. Classe (2000), Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin American and Carribbean Cultures, edited by M. Gonzalez and A.M. Lopez (2000), Encyclopedia of Latin American Literature, edited by Verity Smith (1997). Essays: Acosta; Brazil; Vespucci.

Distad, Merrill. Associate Director of Libraries, University of Alberta. Author of Guessing at Truth: The Life of Julius Charles Hare, 1795[-]1855. Contributor to Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714[-]1837: An Encyclopedia edited by Gerald Newman (1997), Periodicals of Queen Victoria's Empire: An Exploration edited by J. Don Vann and Rosemary VanArsdel (1996), Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia edited by Sally Mitchell (1988), The Reader's Encyclopedia of Canadian Writing (forthcoming), and The New Dictionary of National Biography (forthcoming). Editor of Peel's Bibliography of the Canadian Praries (with E.B. Ingles, forthcoming), of Pierre Ourvrard: Master Bookbinder (with Jeannine Green, 2000). Also contributed articles to the journals History Today, Nautical Magazine, Victorian Periodicals Review. Essays: William Dalrymple; Graaff; Motorcars; Scientific Travelling; Volcanology.

Dixon, John. MSc student, Department of Information Science, City University, London. Contributed to Encyclopaedia of the Novel edited by Paul Schellinger (1998), International Encyclopedia of Translation Studies edited by Harald Kittel (2001); also to the journals Translation Review, Exchanges, Turjuman, Studies in Travel Writing, P.E.N. International. Essays: Lane.

Doiron, Normand. Associate Professor, Department of French Language and Literature, McGill University, Montreal. Author of L'Art de voyager: Le déplacement à l'époque classique (1995). Editor of Voyages en Nouvelle-France (1986), Diéreville, Relation du voyage due Port-Royal de l'Acadie. Suivie de Poésies diverses (1997). Contributor to La découverte de nouveau mondes (1993), Un classicisme ou des classicismes? (1995), La France-Amérique, XVIe-XVIIe siécles edited by Frank Lestringant (1998) and the journals L'Esprit créateur, Papers on French Seventeenth-Century Literature, Revue XVIIe siécle. Essays (with Gillian Lane-Mercier): Cartier; Champlain; Lescarbot, travel essays.

Drijvers, Jan Willem. Lecturer, Department of History, University of Groningen. Author of Helena Augusta: The Mother of Constantine the Great and the Legend of Her Finding of the True Cross (1992), The Finding of the True Cross: The Judas Kyriakos Legend in Syriac (with others, 1997), and Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXII, XXIII and XXIV (with others, 1995, 1998, 2001), and Achaemenid History VII: Through Travellers' Eyes: European Travellers on the Iranian Monuments edited by J.W. Drijvers and Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg (1991). Editor of The Late Roman World and Its Historian: Interpreting Ammanius Marcellinus (with David Hunt, 1999). Also contributed articles to the (selected) following journals, Historia, Mnemosyne, Studia Troica, Vigiliae Christianae, and The Classical Quarterly. Essays: Bruijn.

Duplancic de Elgueta, Elena. Master of Arts in Literary Criticism. Part-time lecturer. Department of Modern Literatures, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. Author of Presencia de la literature de viajes en algunas obras de Shakespeare (2000). Co-Editor of Boletín de Literatura Comparada (1991-1993). Contributor to Comparatística: Estudios de Literatura y Teatro, edited by A. Dubatti (1992). Contributor to several journals including Revista de Lenguas Extranjeras, Nueva Revista de Lenguas Extranjeras, Studia Croatica, Literatura: Espacio de contactos culturales. Essays:

Durie, Alastair. Senior Lecturer, Department of Economic and Social History, University of Glasgow. Author of Scotland for the Holidays: Tourism in Scotland 1780[-]1939 (2001), Water is Best: The Hydropathic Movement in Scotland, 1840[-]1940 (2002), The Scottish Linen Industry in the Eighteenth Century (1979), Vanishing Edinburgh: In the Steps of George Washington Wilson (1989), "Personality and Policy: The First Managers of the British Linen Company" in Enterprise and Management edited by Derek Aldcroft and Anthony Slaven (1995), "The Development of Scotland as a Tourist Destination" in Tourism: The State of the Art, edited by A.V. Seaton (1994). Contributor to The Oxford Companion to British Railway History, edited by Gordon Biddle and Jack Simmons (1997). Author of articles in journals including International Journal of Sports History, International Journal of Maritime History, Business and Economic History. Essays: Scotland;Spas and Health Resorts; Steamships.

Eaton, Joseph. Lecturer, Department of History, St Gregory's University, Shawnee, Oklahmoma, Essays: Beijing; Buckingham Silk; Korea.

Ebron, Grace. Independent scholar based in Italy. Contributor to Encyclopedia of Life Writing edited by Margaretta Jolly (2001), Encyclopedia of African History edited by Kevin Shillington (forthcoming), Immigration Handbook, Postcolonial Encyclopedia. Research interests include postcolonial literature, immigrant communities, feminist theory. Essays: Philippines.

Edgar, Katharine. Doctoral candidate, Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge. Essays: Levant.

Ehrhardt, John C. Assistant Professor of History, Lambuth University, Jackson, Tennessee. Current interests include Russian America. Essays: Bering; Russian-American Company; Vancouver.

Eisner, Robert. Adviser. Professor of Classics and Humanities, San Diego University, California. Author of The Road to Daulis: Psychoanalysis, Psychology, and Classical Mythology (1987) and Travelers to an Antique Land: The History and Literature of Travel to Greece (1991). He is currently working on a book about the Grand Tour and a novel about Telemachus. Essays: Greece: post 1821; Lear.

Eliasson, Pär. Postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Historical Studies, Umeå University, Sweden. Author of Platsens Blick: vetenskapsakademien och den naturalhistoriska resan 1790[-]1840 [ The Place's Glance: The Royal Academy of Science and Scientific Travel, 1790[-]1840], unpublished dissertation (1999) and Contributed to Mundializacion de la ciencia y cultura nacional edited by A. Lafuente, A Elena and M. L. Ortega (with Sverker Sörlin, 1993), Drei Kronen und ein Greif: Deutschland in Schweden-Schweden in Deutschland, edited by Gunnar Müller-Waldeck (1998), and to Science Studies. Essays: Humboldt, Alexander; Scandinavia.

Elsner, Jas. Humfry Payne Senior Research Fellow in Classical Art and Archaeology, Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford. Author of Art and the Roman Viewer: The Transformation of Art from the Pagan World to Christianity (1995), Pilgrimage Past and Present in the World Religions (with Simon Coleman, 1995), Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: The Art of the Roman Empire AD 100[-]450 (1998). Editor of Reflections of Nero (with Jamie Masters, 1994), The Cultures of Collecting (with Roger Cardinal, 1994), Art and Text in Roman Culture (1996), Voyages and Visions: Towards a Cultural History of Travel (with Joan Pau Rubiés ,1999), Pausanias: Travel and Memory in Roman Greece (with others, 2001). Contributor to various edited books and journals. Essays: Apollonius; Pausanias.

En-nehas, Jamal. Assistant Professor of English, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman, Professor of English, Moulay Ismail University, Morocco (1987[-]2001). Author of The Writing Guide for Students of English in Moroccan Universities (1997). Co-translator of Strategy of Islamic Cultural Action in the West. Contributor to World Literature Today. Also contributed articles and reviews to Chimo, Interculturel, The International Fiction Review, Journal of the Oriental Institute, and Maknasat. Essays: Stark; Van der Post.

Featherstone , Kerry. Post-doctoral assistant, English and Media Studies Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham. Essays: Chatwin.

Finkelstein, David. Head of Department, Media and Communication, Queen Margaret University College, Edinburgh. Author of The House of Blackwood: Author-Publisher Relations in the Victorian Era (2002), An Index to Blackwood's Magazine 1901[-]1980 (1995), and Philip Meadows Taylor (1808[-]1876: A Bibliography (1990). Editor of Thomas Nelson and Sons (with Heather Holmes, 2001), The Book History Reader (with Alistair McCleery, 2001), Nineteenth-Century Media and the Construction of Identities (with others, 2000), Negotiating India in the Nineteenth-Century Media (with Douglas M. Peers, 2000). Contributor to latter two books above and to Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet edited by Jeremy Treglown and Bridget Bennet (1998). Also contributed articles to the following journals, Interfaces: Image Texte Language, Text, Victorian Periodicals Review, The Gaskell Society Journal, and Publishing History. Essays: Livingstone.

Fleming, John V. Fairchild Professor of English and Professor of Comparative Literature, Princeton University. Author of The Roman de la Rose: A Study in Allegory and Iconography (1969), An Introduction to the Franciscan Literature of the Middle Ages (1977), From Bonaventure to Bellini: an Essay in Franciscan Exegesis (1982), Reason and the Lover (1984), Classical Imitation and Interpretation in Chaucer's Troilus (1990), 1492: An Ongoing Voyage, with Ida Altman and John Hébert (1992) and about a hundred periodical essays and book chapters on medieval European literature, art, and religion; the classical tradition in the Middle Ages; the Franciscan Order; Christopher Columbus, among other subjects. Essays: Columbus; Cyriaco d'Ancona; Da Gama; Oviedo y Valdes; Teixeria.

Flood, John L. Professor of German in the University of London, and Deputy Director, University of London School of Advanced Study, Institute of Germanic Studies. Author of Johannes Sinapius, 1505[-]1560: Hellenist and Physician in Germany and Italy (with David J. Shaw, 1997). Editor of Die Historie von Herzog Ernst (1992), Das unsichtbare Band der Sprache (with P.B. Salmon et al., 1993), The German Book 1450[-]1750 (with William A. Kelly, 1995). Contributor to Reisen und Welterfahrung in der deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters, edited by Dietrich Huschenbett et al. (1991), German Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation, 1280[-]1580 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 179) edited by James Hardin and Max Reinhart (1997) and many other contributions in books and journals including German Life and Letters, Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, The Library, The Modern Language Review, Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum, Zeitschrift fürtdeutsche Philologie on medieval and Renaissance literature in Germany, book history, and history of medicine, incunabula. Essays: Busbecq; Platter.

Forsdick, Charles. Lecturer, Department of French, University of Glasgow. Author of Autoscopy and Self-Reflection: fiction and pathology from Musset to Segalen (1995), Victor Segalen and the Aesthetics of Diversity: Journeys between Cultures (2000). Editor of and contributor to Reading Diversity (with Susan Marson, 2000). Contributor to Post-Theory: New Directions in Criticism, edited by Martin McQuillan (1999), Les Figures du stéréotype, edited by Christian Garaud (2000), Lectures de Segalen. Stèles et Equipée, edited by Marie Dollé (1999), Thresholds of Otherness / Autrement mêmes, edited by David Murphy and Aedín Ni Loingsigh (2000), European Travel Writing in the 1930s edited by Charles Burdett and Derek Duncan (2000). Also contributed articles to the journals French Cultural Studies, New Comparison, Romance Studies, Sites, ASCALF Bulletin, international Journal of Francophone Studies, Journal of the Institute of Romance Studies. Essays: France: 19th and 20th centuries: Niagara Falls.

Foster, Charles. Barrister, writer and traveller. Author of numerous books and articles on law, travel, medicine and the politics of the Middle East. Publications include a chapter in Desert Travellers: from Herodotus to T. E. Lawrence edited by Janet Starkey and Okasha El Daly (2000) and articles on the West Bank, Syria, Jordan, Bosnia, the Mossad, the veneration of icons, wolf hunting in Kazakstan, and the careers of R.D. Laing and Bede Griffiths in a number of journals including The Contemporary Review, Shooting Gazette, and Esquire magazine. Essays: Cairo; Central Asia: western visitors; Damascus; Fiennes, Ranulph; Gobi Desert; Greece, Ancient Hellenic World; Maclean, Fitzroy; Mekong River.

Franey, Laura E. Assistant Professor of English, Millsaps College, Jackson, Mississippi. Contributor to British and Irish Literature and Its Times edited by Joyce Moss and Lorraine Valestuk (2001), African Literature and Its Times, edited by Joyce Moss and Lorraine Valesetuk (2000), and the journal Victorian Literature and Culture (2001). Essays: Grant; Southern Africa.

Frankopan, Nicholas.Doctoral candidate, Pontificia Universita Gregoriana, Rome. Essays: Polo, Marco.

Frankopan, Peter. Senior Research Fellow-Elect, Worcester College, Oxford University. Editor of Studies in Croatian history (forthcoming).Contributor to Travellers in the Levant, edited by Sarah Searight and Malcolm Wagstaff (2001). Author of articles Byzantinoslavica, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, Byzantion and specialist in 10th and 11th century Byzantium. Essays: Byzantium.

Fraser, Robert H. Senior Research Fellow, Department of Literature at the Open University. Essays: New York; Park; Sahel; Timbuktu.

Frenkel, Yehoshua. Lecturer at the Department of the Land of Israel Studies and the Department of the History of the Middle East, University of Haifa. Contributor to Travellers in the Levant edited by Sarah Searight and Malcolm Wagstaff (2001), Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, 7[-]15th centuries, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk Eras edited by Urbain Vermeulen and Jo Van Steenbergen (2001). Essays: al-Idrisi; Ibn Jubair; Jerusalem; pilgrimage, Islamic, other than Hajj.

Fresonke, Kris. Assistant Professor, English Department, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY. Author of West of Emerson: The Design of Manifest Destiny (2001) and numerous journal articles. Essays: Lewis.

Garay, René. Adviser. Associate Professor of Portuguese and Spanish, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, City University of New York. Author of Gil Vicente and the Development of the Comedia (1988), The Play of Rubena by Gil Vicente (1993). Contributor to Dictionary of Brazilian Literature edited by Irwin Stein (1988), Masterplots II edited by Frank Magill (American Fiction Series 1986), The Global Impact of the Portuguese Language edited by Asela Laguna (2001), Spanish and Portuguese Literature and Its Times. Also articles in the journals Faces de Eva. Estudos sobre a Mulher, La Pluma del Ganso (with Pedro Fonseca) in Gragoatá, Letras, and Celestinesca.Editorial Board member of Signótica. Essays: Camoens.

Garrett, Greg. Adviser. Associate Professor of English, Baylor University, Waco, Texas. Author of Free Bird (forthcoming). Contributor to Journal of African Travel-Writing (Victorian exploration), Journal of Popular Culture (American fiction), Journal of American Culture (American film), Journal of Popular Film and Television (American film), Literature/Film Review (film adaptation). Essays: Burton; Speke.

Garrick, Justin. Doctoral candidate, Faculty of English, Corpus Christi College, University of Cambridge. Editor of Sydneian Poets 1819 to 1919 (1999). Essays: Indian Ocean islands; Indian Ocean, post-exploration.

Gergits, Julia M. Professor, Department of English, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio. Author of Technical Writing Study Guide, with James J. Schramer, 2001). Edited with Barbara Brothers, British Travel Writers 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204,1999), British Travel Writers 1910[-]1939 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 195,1998), British Travel Writers 1876[-]1909 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 174, 1997), British Travel Writers, 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166,1996). Also contributor (with Barbara Brothers) to vol. 166 and (with James J. Schramer) to vol. 204. Author of article in Journal of Advanced Composition. Previously co-editor for the College English Association with Bege K. Bowers and edited the CEA Forum. Essays: Letters; Publishing; Stagecoach and Horse-Drawn vehicles.

Giarelli, Andrew L. Assistant Professor of English, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon. Author of The Temporal Structure of Cheyenne Narrative (1984). Contributor to Fodor's Guide to the National Parks of the West (1999), and World Press Review. Also founding editor of Edging West. Essays: Hemingway.

Gillen, Shawn. Associate Professor of English, Beloit College, Beloit, Wisconsin. Editor of Highbeams, online literary journal ( and reveiws have appeared in Liberal Education (on future of print culture), Henry James Review (essay-review), and North Atlantic Review (fiction). Essays: Wharton.

Goldschmidt Jr., Arthur. Professor Emeritus, Department of History, Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Author of A Concise History of the Middle East (1979, 7th edition 2001), Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt (1999), Historical Dictionary of Egypt (1994), Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State (1988), Articles on the Middle East, 1947[-]1971 (with Peter M. Rossi and Wayne E. White 1980). Editor of The Memoirs and Diaries of Muhammad Farid, an Egyptian Nationalist Leader, 1868[-]1919 (1992). Contributor to Political and Social Change in Modern Egypt edited by P.M. Holt (1968), The Middle East: Its Governments and Politics edited by Abid A. Al-Marayati et al. (1972), The American Historical Association's Guide to Historical Literature edited by Mary Beth Norton and Pamela Gerardi (1995), 72 entries in Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East edited by Reeva S. Simon et al. (1996), Understanding the Contemporary Middle East edited by Deborah J. Gerner (2000). Also contributed books reviews to various periodicals and journal articles to Asian and African Studies, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. Essays: Blunt.

Goldstein, Andrew. Senior Minister (Rabbi), Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue.Author of Exploring the Bible I & II (1987[-]1988), My Jewish Home (2000). Editor of High Holyday Prayerbook of Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues (2001). Essays: Moses and Judith Montefiore.

Gorman, Anita. Associate Professor, Department of English, Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania. Author of The Body in Illness and Health: Themes and Images in Jane Austen (1993). Contributor to American Hard-Boiled Crime Writers (Dictionary of Literary Biography 226) edited by George Parker Anderson and Julie B. Anderson (2000), to British Travel Writers 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (with Hariclea Zengos,1999), An Encyclopedia of British Women Writers, edited by Paul and June Schlueter (1998), American Travel Writers 1776[-]1850 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 183) edited by James J. Schramer and Donald Ross (1997), British Travel Writers 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166) edited Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1996). Contributor to the journals Folly, Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams and the Genres of Myth and Fantasy Studies , Eric/Chess, the Educational Resources Information Center Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Teacher Education. Essays: Leigh Fermor; Roberts.

Gosman, Martin. Adviser. Professor of Romance Languages and Cultures, University of Groningen. Editor of Evr'n Theatre, 1470[-]1600: Traditions and Transformations (with Rina Walthaus, 1996), Exemplum et similtudo: Alexander the Great and Other Heroes as Points of Reference in Medieval Literature (with W.J. Aerts, 1988). He is director of the programme "Medieval to Early Modern Culture", in collaboration with Westfälishce Wilhelsms-Universität of Münster. Essays: Carpino; Rubruck; Sahagún.

Gothóni, René. Adviser. Professor, Department of Comparative Religion, University of Helsinki. Author of Modes of Life of Theravada Monks: A Case Study of Buddhist Monasticism in Sri Lanka (1982), Paradise within Reach: Monasticism and Pilgrimage on Athos (1993), Tales and Truth: Pilgrimage on Mount Athos Past and Present (1994), How to Survive in Academia: Words of Comfort (1996), Attitudes and Interpretations in Comparative Religion (2000). Editor of Mythology and Cosmic Order (with Juha Pentikäinen, 1987), editor-in-chief of Byzantium and the North and Acta Byzantina Fennica. Contributed to Transition Rites: Cosmic, Social and Individual Order edited by Ugo Bianchi (1986), Religious Rites edited by Tore Ahlbäck (1993), The Notion of Religion in Comparative Research edited by Ugo Bianchi (1990), Religio o Psicoterapiai? edited by Mario Aletti (1994), Sundéns Role Theory: An Impetus to Contemporary Psychology of Religion edited by Nils G.Holm and J.A. Belzen (1995). Also contributed to the journals Archiv für Religionpsychologie, Byzantium and the North, Studi sull'Oriente Cristiano, and Temenos. Essays: Barskii; Buondelmonti; Curzon, Robert; Egeria; Westermarck.

Gough, Barry. Professor of History, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario. Biographer of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, he is author of First Across the Continent: Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1997), Fighting Sail on Lake Huron and Georgian Bay: The War of 1812 and its Aftermath (forthcoming), The Royal Navy and the Northwest Coast of North America, 1810[-]1914 (1971), and other books on naval history and maritime endeavour. Essays: Mackenzie.

Greenwood, Emily. Research student, Faculty of Classics, Newnham College, University of Cambridge. Contributor to A Companion to Herodotus (with Paul Cartledge, 2001). Essays: odyssey.

Grenier, Katherine Haldane. Associate Professor, History Department, The Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina. Editor of That Gentle Strength: Historical Perspectives on Women in Christianity (with Lynda L. Coon and Elisabeth W. Sommer, 1990). Contributor to Nineteenth Century Studies, Victorians Institute Journal on tourism in 19th-century Scotland. Essays: Cook's Tours.

Grushow, Ira. Alumni Professor of English Belles Lettres and Literature Emeritus, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Author of The Imaginary Reminiscences of Sir Max Beerbohm (1984). Contributor to British Travel Writers 1876[-]1909 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 174), edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M.Gergits (1997), Twentieth-Century Britain: An Encyclopedia, edited by F.M. Leventhal (1995), encyclopedia articles in The 1890s: An Encyclopedia of British Literature, Art, and Culture, edited by G.A. Cevasco (1993). Also contributed to Papers on Language and Literature, Notes and Queries, Southern Humanities Review. Essays: Epistolary Travel Fiction; Guidebooks.

Guentner, Wendelin Ann. Professor, The University of Iowa, Iowa City. Author of Stendhal et son lecteur: Essai sur les 'Promenades dans Rome' (1989), and Esquisses littéraires. Rhétorique du spontané et récit de voyage au XIXe siecle (1997). Contributor to Du romantisme au surréalisme. Statut et enjeux du récit poétique edited by Alain Montandon (1998) and Women Seeking Expression: 1789[-]1914 edited by Rosemary Lloyd and Brian Nelson (2000). Also contributed articles to the journals Nineteenth-Century French Studies, Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de la France, Romantisme, Romantic Review, Romanische Forchungen, Australian Journal of French Studies, Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, Stendhal Club, Rivista di Letterature moderne e comparate, French Literary Studies, Contemporary French Civilization, Neophilologus, Romanistische Zeitschrift für Literaturgeschichte, Art Journal and Stanford French Review, among others. Essays: Stendhal.

Gurría Quintana, Ángel. Historian, Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge (1997[-]2001). Has recently completed a cultural history of British accounts of travel to Mexico. Contributor to the journal Studies in Travel Writing (2002). Essays: Caribbean: to 1700; South America: The North.

Hadfield, Andrew. Adviser. Professor of English, University of Wales, Aberystwyth. Author of The English Renaissance, 1500[-]1620 (2001), Literature, Travel and Colonial Writing in the English Renaissance, 1545[-]1625 (1998), Edmund Spenser's Irish Experience: Wilde Fruit and Salvage Soyl (1997), Literature, Politics and National Identity: Reformation to Renaissance (1994). Editor of Amazons, Savages and Machievals: An anthology of travel and colonial writing, 1550[-]1630 (2001), The Cambridge Companion to Spenser (with Brendan Bradshaw and Willy Maley, 2001), Literature and Censorship in Renaissance England (2001), Representing Ireland: Literature and the Origins of Conflict, 1534[-]1660 (with John McVeagh, 1993), Strangers to that Land: British Perceptions of Ireland from the Reformation to the Famine (1994). Contributor to The Renaissance Computer: Knowledge Technology in the First Age of Print edited by Neil Rhodes and Jonathan Sawday (2000), British Identity and British Consciousness, 1533[-]1707 edited by Brendan Bradshaw and Peter Roberts (1998), Shakespeare and Ireland: History, Politics, Culture edited by Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray (1997), Travel and Drama in Shakespeare's Time edited by Michele Willems and Jean-Pierre Maquerlot (1996), A Milton Companion edited by Thomas N. Corns (2001). Essays: Gilbert; Lithgow; Moryson; New World Chronicles.

Hadžiselimovic, Omer. Adjunct in English and Assistant to the Chancellor, Indiana University East, Richmond, Indiana. Author of Messages and Responses: the American Social Novel in the Criticism in Serbo-Croatian, 1918 to 1941 (1980). Editor of At the Gates of the East: British Travel Writers on Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (1989; American edition, 2001). Contributor to Black Lambs & Grey Falcons: Women Travellers in the Balkans, edited by John B. Allcock and Antonia Young (1991; second edition 2000). Also contributed journal articles to Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik (reception of American literature in Yugoslavia), Enciklopedija Jugoslavije ( British-Bosnian/Herzegovinian and British-Montenegrin Cultural Relations), Knjizevna smotra (on Kurt Vonnegut; British travel writing about Bosnia), Izraz (on James Dickey; John Updike), Encyclopaedia moderna (the idea of mission in American history), East European Quaterly (American travel writing about Bosnia). Essays: Balkans.

Hagglund, Elizabeth. Senior Research Fellow, Caird Library, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Editor of Sarah Murray: A Companion and Useful Guide to the Beauties of Scotland (1799) (2000). Contributor (with Jonathan Laidlaw) to Gender and Utopian Thought in the Eighteenth Century edited by Brenda Tooley and Nicole Pohl (2000). Also contributed articles to Studies in Travel Writing and Early Modern Literary Studies. Essays: Fiennes, Celia; Marsden.

Häggman, Bertil. Independent researcher based in Sweden. Author (with Lars Gjertveit) of Swedish Generals and Colonels in Gray 1861[-]1865 (1996), Ukrainska öden I Sverige på Karl XII [Ukrainian Fates in Sweden in the Era of Charles XII (1994), Political Options: the Defence of Freedom (1988), Political Warfare: The Missing Link in the Defence of the West (1986), Nykonservatismen I USA [New Conservatism in the US] (with Claes G. Ryn, 1971). Contributor to The Reader's Guide to Military History edited by Charles Messenger (2001), Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery edited by Junius P. Rodriguez (1997), Karolinska Förbundetns Årsbok 1995 (1997), Nationalencyklopedin [Swedish National Encyclopedia], Soviet Active measures, People-to-People Contacts, and the Helsinki Process (1986). Also contributed articles to the journals Traffico, Polar Libraries Bulletin, Royal Swedish Academy of Military Science on Geopolitics andGeostrategy and Afärsekonomi Management. Essays: balloons and airships; Hedin; Nordenskiöld; Northeast Passage.

Haider, Peter W. . Professor at the Institute of Ancient History and Ancient Near East. Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, Austria. Author of Einblicke in die Religion Altägyptens (2002), Persönlichkeiten der Römerzeit im heutigen Nord-. Ost- und Südtirol sowie im Trentino (2002), Griechenland - Nordafrika - Ihre Beziehungen zwischen 1500 and 600 v. Chr. (1998), Römische Inschriften aus dem Alt-Tiroler Raum. Eine Auswahl (1996). Editor of Althistorische Studien im Spannungfeld zwischen Universal- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Festschrift für Franz Hampl zum 90. Geburtstag (2001), Religionsgeschichte Syriens - Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart (1996), Kreta. Artemis-Cicerone Kunst- und Reiseführer (1988). Contributor to Formen des Kontakts zwischen Orient und Okzident im Alterum, edited by M. Schuol and U. Hartmann and A. Luther (2002), Dier bezichungen zu Osttgriechenland, Ägypten und Zypern in archaischer Zeit, edited by U. Höckmann and D. Kreikebom (2001), Potnia: Deities and Religions in the Aegean Bronze Age. Aegeum 23, edited by R. Laffineur and R. Hägg (2000), Österreichische Forschungen zur ägäischen Bronzezeit 1998, edited by F. Blakolmer (2000). Contributor of several articles in the journals Ägypten und Levante, Antike Welt, Beiträge, Kleine Schriften, Münstersche Beiträge zur antiken Handelsgeschichte. Essays: Roman Empire

Halén, Harry. Secretary (Amanuensis), Institute for Asian and African Studies, University of Helsinki. Author (with Bent Larbæk Pedersen) of C. G. Mannerheim's Chinese Pantheon. Materials for an Iconography of Chinese Folk Religion (1993), Mirrors of the Void: Buddhist Art in the National Museum of Finland (1987), Biliktu Bakshi: The Knowledgeable Teacher. G. J. Ramstedt's Career as a Scholar (1998), Handbook of Oriental Collections in Finland: Manuscripts, xylographs,inscriptions, and Russian minority literature (1978). Also compiler of bibliographies of Pentti Aalto and Jussi Aro and of Mongolian studies in Finland, 1946[-]95. Editor of Nordmongolische Volksdichtung, gesammelt von G. J. Ramstedt, vols 1[-]2 (1973[-]74), Westlamutische Materialien, aufgezeichnet von Arvo Sotavalta (1978), Memoria saecularis Sakari Pälsi. Aufzeichnungen von einer Forschungsreise nach der nördlichen Mongolei im Jahre 1909 nebst Bibliographien (1982), Cumucica & Nogaica: G. J. Ramstedt's Kumyk /Nogay materials (with Emine Gürsoy-Naskali 1991). Contributed articles to several books and to the following journals Studia Orientalia, Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne , International Journal of Central Asian Studies, Bulletin of the International Association for Mongol Studies, An International Annual of Mongol Studies. Essays: Mannerheim.

Hanway, Nancy. Assistant Professor of Spanish, Department of Modern Languages, Gustavus Adolphus College, Saint Peter, Minnesota. Contributor to Chasqui: una revista de literatura latinoamerica (forthcoming), The Florida Review, North Dakota Quarterly, Washington Square. Essays: Las Casas.

Harper, Lila Marz. Instructor, English Department, Central Washington University, Ellensburg. Author of Solitary Travelers: Nineteenth-Century Women's Travel Narratives and the Scientific Vocation (forthcoming). Contributor to Nineteenth-Century British Women Writers, edited by Abigail Bloom (forthcoming), British Travel Writers 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1996), New Dictionary of National Biography (forthcoming). Also contributed articles to George Eliot-George Henry Lewes Studies and Extrapolation. Essays: Kingsley.

Harrington, Charles. Associate Professor, Department of English, Indiana University, South Bend. Author of many articles on travel, most recently for Explorer. Essays: poetry.

Harvey, Leonard Patrick. Adviser. Professor Emeritus, University of London, Fellow of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, Fellow of King's College London. Author of Islamic Spain (1990). Editor (with others) of Cassell's Compact Spanish-English English-Spanish Dictionary (1969), of Hispano-Arabic Strophic Poetry (1974). Contributor to Oral Literature edited by Joseph J.Duggan (1975), The Legacy of Muslim Spain edited by Salma K. Jayyusi (1992), La expulsión de los Moriscos edited by José Miranda (1998). Also contributed articles to the journals Al-Andalus, Al-Qantara, Al-Masaq, Sharq al-Andalus, Miscelánea de Estudios Árabes y Hebraicos, Bulletin of Spanish Studies, Nueva Revista de Filología Hispánica, among others. Essays: al-Ghazal; al-Hajari.

Havely, Cicely Palser. Senior Lecturer in Literature and sub-dean in the Faculty of Arts at the Open University. Editor of This Grand Beyond: The Travels of Isabella Bird Bishop (1984). Essays: Bird; Eden; Heber.

Haycock, David Boyd. Junior Research Fellow, Wolfson College, Oxford. Currently completing a new intellectual biography of the antiquary William Stukeley (1687[-]1765). Essays: Ray.

Hayes, Kevin J. , Professor of English at the University of Central Oklahoma. Author of Captain John Smith: A Reference Guide (1991), and editor of Edward Kimber's Itinerant Observations in America (1998). Contributor to the jounrals Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society and the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Essays: Baedeker.

Hayward, Jennifer. Associate Professor of English, College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio. Author of Consuming Pleasures: Active Audiences and Serial Fictions from Dickens to Soap Opera (1997). Contributed journal articles to Cultural Critique and Black American Literature Forum. Currently working on the literary strategies of women and travel and imperial masculinities. Essays: Graham; women travellers, 19th century.

Hazledine, Anthony. Is a dealer in antique oriental carpets and traveller in the East. Essays: Doughty.

Heaps, Denise Adele. Previously at the University of Toronto. Contributed journal articles to Essays on Canadian Writing, Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly, and Studies in Canadian Literature. Essays: Canada.

Heenan, Patrick. Independent scholar, editor and writer based in the United Kingdom. Co-editor with Monique Lamontagne of the series Regional Handbooks of Economic Development (1998-2003). Essays: Brooke; Japan post-1853; Mabillon; Mongolia; Thailand.

Helfers, James. Dean, Professor of English Literature, College of Liberal Arts, Grand Canyon University, Phoenix, Arizona. Author of articles in the Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association and Studies in Philology. Essays: Frobisher; maps and charts.

Helmers, Marguerite. Associate Professor of English,University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh. Author of Writing Students: Composition Testimonials and Representations of Students (1994). Editor of Intertexts: Reading Pedagogy in the Writing Classroom (2002), WPA: Writing Program Administration (1998[-]2001). Contributor to British Travel Writers 1910[-]1939 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 195) (1998), Kitchen Cooks, Plate Twirlers, and Troubadours: Writing Program Administrators Tell Their Stories, edited by Diana George (1999), Foregrounding Ethical Awareness in Composition and English Studies, edited by Sheryl Fontaine and Susan Hunter (1998), and to the journals Bad Subjects, Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Arts and Sciences, College English, JAC: the Journal of Advanced Composition, Enculturation, ADE Bulletin, Writing Instructor, Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments. Essays: Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River; Turner.

Hemming, John. CMG Chairman, Hemming Group Ltd. Author of The Conquest of the Incas (revised edition 1995), Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians (revised edition 1995), The Search for El Dorado (1978, 2001), Monuments of the Incas (1981), Amazon Frontier: The Defeat of the Brazilian Indians (revised edition 1996). Editor of Change in the Amazon Basin (1985), The Rainforest Edge (1994), Maracá, Rainforest Island (with James Ratter, 1993) Roraima, Brazil's Northernmost Frontier (1993), The Golden Age of Discovery (1998), and Die If You Must: Brazilian Indians in the Twentieth Century (forthcoming). Director, Royal Geographical Society, 1975[-]1996. Chairman of the Anglo-Peruvian Society. Essays: Peru.

Henn, David. Head of Department of Spanish and Latin American Studies, University College London. Author of The Early Pardo Bazán: Theme and Narrative Technique in the Novels of 1879[-]89 (1988), C.J. Cela: 'La colmena' (1974; reprinted, 1997). Contributor to A Lifetime's Reading: Hispanic Essays for Patrick Gallagher edited by Don W. Cruickshank (1999), A Further Range: Studies in Modern Spanish Literature from Galdós to Unamuno edited by Anthony H. Clarke (1999). Also contributed journal articles to Forum for Modern Language Studies, Revue de Littérature Comparée, Modern Language Review, and Hispanic Research Journal. Essays: Cela.

Hepper, F. Nigel. Formerly Research Botanist, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. Author of Pharaoh's Flowers: Botanic Treasures of Tutankhamun (1990), Illustrated Encyclopedia of Bible Plants (1992), Luigi Balugani's Drawings of African Plants (with others, 1997), The Plants of Pehr Forsskål's "Flora Aegytiaco-Arabica" (with I. Friis, 1994), Flora of West Africa (revised edition, 1963[-]72). Contributor to the journals Kew Bulletin, Geographical Magazine, Eretz: Geographical Magazine of Israel, Nigerian Field, Bothalia. Essays: Plant Hunting: Africa.

Hewitt, (Brian) George. Professor of Caucasian Languages, Near and Middle East Department, School of Oriental and African Studies, London University. Author (with Zaira Khiba) of Lingua Descriptive Studies 2: Abhkas (1979), The Typology of Subordination in Georgian and Abkhas (1987), Georgian: A Learner's Grammar (1995); Georgian: A Structural-Reference Grammar (1995), An Abkhaz Newspaper Reader (With Supplements) (with Zaira Khiba, 1998). Editor of Svan-English Dictionary (compiled by Letas Palmaitis and Chato Gudjedjiani 1985), The Indigenous Languages of the Caucausus 2: North West Caucausus (1989); Caucasian Perspectives (1992), Subject, Voice and Ergativity: Selected Essays (with David C. Bennett and Theodora Bynon, 1995), The Abkhazians: A Handbook (1998). Contributor to Language Planning in the Soviet Union, edited by Michael Kirkwood (1989), Peoples of the Caucausus: the Times Guide to the Peoples of Europe, edited by Félipe Fernandez-Armesto (1994), Post-War Developments in the Georgian-Abhkazian Dispute, edited by Ole Hiris and Sefa Martin Krykel (1998), Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, edited by Glanville Price (1998), Studies in Caucausian Linguistics, edited by Helma Van Den Berg (1999), and the journals Lingua, Revue des Etudes Georgiennes et Caucasiennes, Annual of Ibero-Caucasian Linguistics, Transactions of the Philological Society, Central Asian Survey. Essays: Caucasus: Western visitors.

Hickey, Kevin M. Visiting Assistant Professor of English, Western Connecticut State University, Danbury. Contributor to Migrating Words and Worlds: Pan-Africanism Updated, edited by E. Anthony Hurley, Renée Larrier, and Joseph McLaren (1999), Twentieth Century American Cultural Theorists (Dictionary of Literary Biography) edited by Paul Hansom (2001), Encyclopedia of Life Writing, edited by Margaretta Jolly (2001), Encyclopedia of Postcolonial Studies, edited by Ed. John C. Hawley (2001), Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies (forthcoming), and to journals Phoebe: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Feminist Scholarship, Theory and Aesthetics, and a dozen articles on six-year bicycle trip through 52 countries of Europe and Africa (1978[-]84) in (among others) Cyclist, Bicycle Guide, Bicycling, and Schweizer Jugend. Essays: Central Africa.

Higginson, Ian N. Research Fellow, Centre for History and Cultural Studies of Science, The University of Kent at Canterbury, Leverhulme Special Research Fellow, visiting Research Fellow at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Contributor to Making Space for Science: Territorial Themes in the Shaping of Knowledge edited by Crosbie Smith and Jon Agar (1998) and the journals British Journal for the History of Science, the Call of the Wild, Polar Record, and Arctic. Essays: Alaska; Yukon River.

Holden, Philip Joseph. Assistant Professor, University Scholars Programme, National University of Singapore. Author of Modern Subjects/Colonial Texts: Hugh Clifford and the Discipline of English Literature in the Straits Settlements and Malaya, 1895[-]1907 (2000), Orienting Masculinity, Orienting Nation: W. Somerset Maugham's Exotic Fiction (1996). Contributor to Reading Culture: Textual Practices in Singapore, edited by Anneliese Kramer-Dahl and Phyllis G. L. Chew (1999), Pacific Encounters: the Production of Self and Other, edited by Eva-Marie Kröller et al. (1998) and the journals Studies in Short Fiction, Textual Studies in Canada, English Studies in Canada, SPAN, Literature and History, ARIEL, Journal of Commonwealth Literature, Jouvert, Studies in Travel Writing, Communal/Plural, Kunapipi, New Literatures Review, Victorian Literature and Culture, Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, Biography. Essays: Malaya/Malaysia; Singapore.

Holmes, John. Lecturer in English Literature, University of Reading. Contributor to the journals Sidney Journal, Notes and Queries, and English Historical Review. Essays: Fletcher; Harriot; Ralegh.

Hopkins, Chris. Senior Lecturer in English Studies, Sheffield Hallam University. He works mainly on British writing between the wars, and Anglo-Welsh writing. He is the author of Thinking About Texts: An Introduction to English Studies (2001) and contributed to the journals Critical Survey, Literature and History, Focus on Robert Graves and his Contemporaries, Notes and Queries, The Journal of Gender Studies, The Review of Irish Studies, The Review of Contemporary Fiction, English Language Notes and Style. Essays: Byron; Younghusband.

Horne, Julia. University Historian, University of Sydney. Has written on travel and tourism in 18th and 19th- century Australia and her forthcoming book is a history of travel in 19th-century Australia. Essays: Australia.

Horta, José Silva. Lecturer, History Department, Lisbon University. Author of A representação do Africano na Literatura de Viagens, do Senegal à Serra Leoa (1453[-]1508) (1991), O Confronto do olhar: o encontro dos povos na época das navegações portuguesas. Séculos XV e XVI. Portugal, África, Ásia, América (with others, 1991). Contributed to Condicionantes culturais da literatura de viagens: estudos e bibliografias edited by Fernando Alves Cristovão (1999), Actas do Seminário Encontro de Povos e Culturas em Angola (1997), Colóquio Internacional "Construção e Ensino da História de África (1995), Estudos de Homenagem a Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, edited by M R. Barata de A. Cruz et al. (1995), História de Portugal dos tempos pré-históricos aos nossos dias, edited by João Medina (1993). Also contributed articles to the journals History in Africa, Mare Liberum: Review of History of the Seas, Les Ateliers des Interprètes. Révue Européenne pour Historiens d' Art. Essays: Guinea coast.

Hout, Syrine C. Assistant Professor of English at the American University of Beirut. Contributor to The Age of Revolution and Romanticism: Interdisplinary Studies edited by Gita May (1997), British Travel Writers 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1999), Historicizing Christian Encounters with the Other edited by John C. Hawley (1998), Flight Against Time edited by Emily Nasrallah (forthcoming). Essays: Hajj.

Huff, Randall. Professor of English, Iowa State University, Ames. Author of American Popular Culture of the Revolutionary War (forthcoming). Essays: Mississippi River.

Jarvis, Robin. Reader, School of English, University of the West of England, Bristol. Author of Wordsworth, Milton and the Theory of Poetic Relations (1991), Romantic Writing and Pedestrian Travel (1997). Editor of Reviewing Romanticism (with Philip W. Martin, 1992). Contributed to Re-Membering Milton: Essays on the Texts and Traditions edited by Mary Nyquist and Margaret Ferguson (1988), Beyond Romanticism: New Approaches to Texts and Contexts 1780[-]1832 edited by Stephen Copley and John Whale (1992), The Politics of Pleasure: Aesthetics and Cultural Theory edited by Stephen Regan (1992), Romanticism, Theory, Gender edited by Tony Pinkney et al. (1995). Also contributed articles to Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Diacritics, Studies in Romanticism, The Wordsworth Circle, The Coleridge Bulletin. Essays: Romanticism; Walking.

Jenkins, McKay. Associate Professor of English, University of Delaware. Author of The South in Black and White: Race Sex and Literature in the 1940s (1999), The White Death: Tragedy and Heroism in an Avalanche Zone (2000). Editor of The Peter Matthiessen Reader: A Selection of Nonfiction (2000). Also a contributor of many essays and pieces of journalism on issues of race and the environment. Essays: canoe; Thompson.

Jolly, Roslyn. Senior Lecturer, School of English, University of New South Wales. Author of Henry James: History, Narrative, Fiction (1993). Editor of South Sea Tales by Robert Louis Stevenson (1996). Contributed to Crossing Cultures: Essays on Literature and Culture of the Asia-Pacific, edited by Bruce Bennett et al. (1996) and journal articles on Victorian and post-colonial literature and culture to The Review of English Studies and The Journal of Commonwealth Literature. Essays: Samoa; Stevenson.

Jones, Helen L. Lecturer in German and Film and Media at the University of Central Lancashire. She completed her thesis on Brigitte Reimann and has published various articles on literature of the former German Democratic Republic. She is currently focusing on travel themes in East German literature and film. Essays: Samarkand.

Judkins, David. Associate Professor of English, University of Houston, Texas. Author of The Non-dramatic Works of Ben Jonson: A Reference Guide (1982), and Study Abroad: The Astute Student's Guide (1989). He is the author of numerous articles on travel writers. Essays: Cavendish; circumnavigation narratives; Drake; Muscovy Company.

Kabdebo, Thomas George. Librarian Emeritus. National University of Ireland, Maynooth. Author of Ireland and Hungary (2001), Danubius Danubia (1998), Dictionary of Dictionaries (l993, 2nd ed. l997), Attila Jozsef (1997), Decent Island (1992), The Hungarian Irish Parallel (1988), Irorszag ket arca (1984), Hungary (1980), and Diplomat in Exile (1979). Essays: Eastern Europe.

Karttunen, Klaus. Docent of Indology and Classical Ethnography, University of Helsinki. Author of India in Early Greek Literature (1989), India and the Hellenistic World (1997)and several books in Finnish. Editor of (with Petteri Koskikallio) Vidyarnavavandanam. Essays in honour of Asko Parpola (2001). Contributed to A Companion to Herodotus, edited by Irene de Jong et al. (forthcoming), Der Neue Pauly (1996). Author of numerous articles in English, Finnish, collective volumes including the journals Arctos, Studia Orientalia, Bulletin des études indiennes. Essays: Bernier; Burnes; Hawkings; Herodotus; India: south; Indian subcontinent: ancient; Linschoten; Megasthenes; Moorcroft; Stein; Tavernier; Yule.

Kaul, Chandrika. Lecturer in Modern History, School of History, University of St Andrews. Author of Imperial Communications, Fleet Street and the Indian Empire c. 1850s[-]1920s (1997), Press and Empire: The London Press, Government News Management and India, circa 1900[-]1922 (1999), "Popular Press and Empire: Northcliffe, India and the Daily Mail, 1896[-]1922" in Northcliffe's Legacy, edited by C. Seymour-Une et al (2000), and Press and Empire: Repeating the Raj 1880[-]1922 (2003). Essays: India, Modern.

Kelly, James William. Doctoral candidate,Worcester College, Oxford. Author of a forthcoming book on Captain Bartholomew Sharpe's South Sea Expedition (1680[-]82). Contributor to the journals Notes & Queries, History Today, Mercator's World, Review of English Studies and to the New Dictionary of National Biography (forthcoming). Essays: Buccaneer Narratives; Purchas.

Kent-Drury, Roxanne. Assistant Professor, Literature and Language Department, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights. Author of Using INTERNET Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in World Literature (forthcoming). Contributor to The Broadview Anthology of Restoration and Early Eighteenth-Century Drama edited by J. Douglas Canfield (2001), and (with Gordon Sayre) to Robinson Crusoe's Parodic Intertextuality, edited by Carl Fisher and Maximilian Novak (2001). Essays: colonist/settler narratives; pirates/bandits.

Klein-Franke, Aviva. Senior Lecturer at the Martin Buber Institute for Jewish Studies, University of Cologne. Contributed to Jemen - 3000 Jarhe Kunst und Kultur des glüchlichen Arabien edited by Wener Daum (1987), Die Königin von Saba: Kunst, Legende und Archäologie zwischen Morgenland und Abendland edited by Werner Daum (1988), Das gemeinsame Haus Europe (1999), Cultural Anthropology of Southern Arabia (1999), and Interpreting the Orient edited by Janet and Paul Starkey (2001). Essays: Yemen.

Koos, Leonard R. Associate Professor of French, Department of Modern Foreign Languages, Mary Washington College, Fredericksburg, Virginia. Co-editor of Dead Ringers: The Film Remake in Theory and Practice (forthcoming).Contributor to Confrontations: Politics and Aesthetics in Nineteenth-Century France edited by Kathyrn M. Grossman et al. (2001), Perennial Decay: On the Aesthetics and Politics of Decadence, edited by Liz Constable et al. (1999), Forty Years of the Fifth Republic; Actions, Dialogues and Discourses edited by Maggie Allison and Owen Heathcote (1999), Images of the City in Nineteenth-Century France, edited by John West-Sooby (1998), Antonin Artaud and the Modern Theater, edited by Gene Plunka (1994). Author of journal articles published in Yale French Studies, LIT; Literature, Interpretation, Theory, Romance Notes, French Literature Series, Studies in Twentieth Century Literature, and Excavatio. Essays: Bougainville; Gautier; La Pérouse.

Kowalewski, Michael. Professor of English and Director of the Program in American Studies, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota. Author of Deadly Musings: Violence and Verbal Form in American Fiction (1993), Popular Classics of American Literature (1996). Editor of Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel (1992), Reading the West: New Essays on the Literature of the American West (1996), Gold Rush: A Literary Exploration (1997). Contributed to Rooted in Barbarous Soil: People, Culture, and Community in Gold Rush California, edited by Kevin Starr (2000), American Nature Writers, vol. 2, edited by John Elder (1996), San Francisco in Fiction: Essays in a Regional Literature, edited by David Fine and Paul Skenazy (1995), Regionalism Reconsidered: New Approaches to the Field, edited by David Jordan (1994), The Big Empty: Essays on Western Landscapes as Narrative edited by Leonard Engel (1994). Author of articles to the following journals Raritan, Gettysburg Review, Northwest Review, American Literary History, Michigan Quarterly Review, California History, Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Western American Literature. Essays: Pacific Ocean: exploration along American west coast; United States: west coast.

Kramer, Jürgen. Professor of British Cultural Studies, Dortmund University. Author of Cultural and Intercultural Studies (1990), British Cultural Studies (1997), co-editor of the Journal for the Study of British Cultures. Research areas include British cultural studies, history of Britain and the British empire, the sea as a cultural space, transatlantic slavery, literature of the Pacific, Joseph Conrad, Robert Louis Stevenson. Essays: Conrad.

Krummrich, Philip. Professor and Chair, Department of Foreign Languages, Catawba College,Salisbury, North Carolina. Contributor to Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction edited by Kirk Beetz (1998), Critical Survey of Drama edited by, Frank N. Magill (1983), Critical Survey of Poetry, edited by Frank N. Magill (1983), Mentalities: Review of The Aesthetics of Fantasy Literature and Art, Correio das Artes. Essays: Fawcett; Fleming; plant hunting, New World; shipwreck; Young, Gavin.

Laidlow, Jonathan. Web Development Coordinator, School of Humanities and School of Law, University of Birmingham. Contributor to Eighteenth-Century Novel (on Laurence Sterne). Essays: Sterne.

Lalla, John. Essays: Rennell, James.

Lamontagne, Monique. Independent scholar, editor and writer based in the United Kingdom. Co-editor with Patrick Heenan of the series Regional Handbooks of Economic Development (1998-2003). Essays: Mongolia; Thailand.

Lane-Mercier, Gillian. Associate Professor, Department of French Language and Literature, McGill University, Montreal. Author of La parole romanesque (1989). Editor (with Annick Chapdelaine) of Etudes sur le texte et ses transformations (1994), Etraduire "The Hamlet" de Faulkner: la réflexion a l'oeuvre, la reflexion par l'oeuvre (with Annick Chapdelaine, forthcoming). Contributor to Mimesis: Studien zur literarischen Repräsentation [Studies in Literary Representation] edited by Bernhard F. Scholz (1998) and also to the journals Versus, Poétique, Etudes françaises, Kodikas/Code, Semiotica, among others. Essays (with Norman Doiron): Cartier; Champlain; Lescarbot; Travel Essays.

Lang, Jessica. Essay: Bus.

Lanigan, Jane. Freelance editor and writer based in London. Essays: Burma/Myanmar; Madagascar.

Ledford-Miller, Linda. Professor of Spanish, Portuguese and American Minority Literature at the University of Scranton in Scranton, Pennsylvania. She has been a Fulbright Scholar to Brazil (1979[-]80) and a Fulbright Lecturer to Guatemala (1990[-]91)and has travelled widely in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. Contributed to Literature and Travel edited by Michael Hanne (1993), Literature and the Bible edited by David Bevan (1993), and the journals Monographic Review, Brazil, Hispania, Luso-Brazilian Review, Revista canadiense de estudios hispánicos, Studies in Afro-Hispanic Literature. Essays: Central America; Cortes; Jesuit Narratives, New World Missions.

Leick, Gwendolyn. Senior Lecturer, Chelsea College of Art and Design, London. Author of Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City (2001), Who's Who in the Ancient Near East (1999), Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature (1994), A Dictionary of Ancient Near East Mythology (1991), and A Dictionary of Ancient Near East Architecture (1988). Essays: Mesopotamia.

Litvack, Leon. Senior Lecturer in English, The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Author of John Mason Neale and the Quest for Sobornost (1994), Literatures of the Nineteenth Century: Romanticism to Victorianism (1996), Charles Dickens's Dombey and Son: An Annotated Bibliography (1999). Editor (with Glenn Hooper) Ireland in the Nineteenth Century: Regional Identity (2000), The Complete Critical Guide to Dickens (2001). Articles for The Dickensian. Essays: Dickens.

Llewellyn Smith, Michael. Former British Ambassador at Athens. Author of Ionian Vision: Greece in Asia Minor 1919-1922 (1973), The Great Island: a Study of Crete (1965), and The British Embassy Athens (1998). Essays: Mount Athos.

Lockwood, Anne. Assistant Professor of English and Chair of the Division of Arts and Letters at Limestone College, Gaffney, South Carolina. Area of specialization is Victorian literature, with a particular interest in travel literature of the British empire, and is currently writing a book on British women travel writers in the Middle East. Essays: Bell; Duff-Gordon; Stanhope.

Lomando, Anna E. Adjunct Faculty, Department of English, Penn State New Kensington, Commonwealth College, Upper Burrell, Pennyslvania. Contributor to American Travel Writers 1776[-]1864 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 183) edited by Donald Ross and James J. Schramer (1997), American Travel Writers 1850[-]1915 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 189) edited by Donald Ross and James J. Schramer (1998), and Encyclopedia of American Literature of the Sea and Great Lakes edited by Jill B. Gidmark (2001). Essays: Melville.

Lopes Bastos, Patricia. Esaays: Albuquerque, Afonso de; Brito, Bernardo Gomes de.

Lorimer, Joyce. Adviser. Associate Professor of History at Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario. Author of English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon, 1550[-]1646 (1989), and Settlement Patterns in Early Modern Colonization, 16th[-]18th Centuries (1998). Forthcoming is a new edition of Sir Walter Ralegh's Discoverie of the Large,Rich and Bewtiful Empire of Guiana. Essays: Amazon River.

Loureiro, Rui Manuel. Director, Universidade Lusófona, Portimão, Independent Researcher, Centro de História de Além-Mar, Lisbon, Visiting Professor, Universidade de Macau, Macao. Author of Fidalgos, missionários e mandarins: Portugal e a China no século XVI [Fidalgos, Missionairies and Mandarins: Portugal and China in the 16th Century] (2000), Guia de História de Macau, 1500[-]1900 [Guide to the History of Macao, 1500[-]1900] (1999), Pelos mares da China [Sailing the China Seas] (1999), A biblioteca de Diogo do Couto [The library of Diogo do Couto] (1998), Itinerário de Jan Huygen van Linschoten para as Índias Orientais (Translation into Portuguese with Arie Pos) [Itinerary of Jan Huygen van Linschoten to the East Indies] (1997). Essays: Indian Ocean: European exploration.

Lucas, Susan M. Doctoral candidate. Teaching Fellow, English Department, University of Nevada, Reno. Contributor to Thoreau's Sense of Place: Essays in American Environmental Writing edited by Richard J. Schneider (2000) and Managing Editor of ISLE: Interdisplinary Studies in Literature and Environment. Has also written book reviews for Southwestern American Literature, Women's Studies, and ISLE: Interdisplinary Studies in Literature and Environment. Essays: Lopez.

MacDonald, Kenneth Iain. Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Author of various articles in Human Ecology, Mountain Research and Development, Comparative Studies in Society and History and Environment and Planning, Society and Space. Author of Bearing the White Man's Burden: Travel and Transculturation in Northern Pakistan (with David Butz, forthcoming). Essays: ethics; Kashmir.

Magri-Mourgues, Véronique. Director of Conferences, University of Nice. Author of Le Discours sur l'autre à travers quatre récits de voyage en Orient (1995). Editor of Miroirs de texts: récits de voyage et intertextualité (1998), Etude sur Flaubert, Madame Bovary (1999) and journal articles in Cahiers de narratologie and Lectures de Corinne ou l'Italie de Germaine de Staël. Essays: Fromentin.

Manley, Deborah. Independent writer based in London. Author of Henry Salt: Artist, Traveller, Diplomat, Egyptologist (2001), and The Piccolo Book of Travelling Games (with Peta Rée, 1986). Contributor to Travellers in Egypt edited by Paul and Janet Starkey (1998), Unfolding the Orient editd by Paul and Janet Starkey (2001), and to the journal ASTENE Bulletin. Essays: camel; Egypt: western travellers; Malta.

Manning, Martin J. Librarian and archivist, Office of International Information Programs, Bureau of Public Diplomacy, US Department of State, Washington, DC. Author of Encyclopedia of Herbs, Spices and Botanicals (with Frank W. Hoffmann , forthcoming).Editor of Historical Dictionary of the British Empire (with James S. Olson and Robert Shadle, 1996). Contributor to American National Biography edited by John A. Garraty and Mark C.Carnes (1998), Dictionary of American Biography, Encyclopedia of Gardens: History and Design, edited by Candace Shoemaker (forthcoming), Encyclopedia of Propaganda, edited by Robert Cole (1998), Encyclopedia of New England Culture, edited by Burt Feintuch and David H. Watters (forthcoming). Contributor to Journal of Library History. Essays: collections of the literature of travel and exploration; diplomatic and trade missions; journals of the literature of travel and exploration; Society for the History of Discoveries.

Martels, Zweder von. Adviser. Lecturer in Latin, Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen. Author of Augerius Gislenius Busbequius / Ogier Ghiselin van Boesbeeck, Legationis Turcicae epistolae quatuor / Vier brieven over het gezantschap naar Turkije, tekstuitgave, introduction, notes and edition (1994). Editor of Alchemy Revisited (1990), Travel Fact and Travel Fiction. Studies on Fiction, Literary Tradition, Scholarly Discovery, and Observation in Travel Writing (1994), Limae labor et mora : opstellen voor Fokke Akkerman ter gelegenheid van zijn zeventigste verjaardag (2000). Contributor to Kaiser Maximilian II. Kultur und Politik im 16. Jahrhundert edited by Friedrich Edelmayer and Alfred Kohler (1992), Travel Fact and Travel Fiction. Studies on Fiction, Literary Tradition, Scholarly Discovery, and Observation in Travel Writing, edited by Z.R.W.M. von Martels (1994), Northern Humanism in the European Context, 1469[-]1625 edited by F. Akkerman et al. (1999), Poets and Teachers: Latin didactic poetry and the didactic authority of the Latin Poet from the Renaissance to the Present, edited by Yasmin Haskell and Philip Hardie (1999), Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages. An Encyclopedia, edited by John Block Friedman and Kristen Mossler Figg (2000). Contributor to Bulletin de l'Institut historique Belge de Rome, Res publica litterarum. Studies in the classical tradition, Studi Umanistici Piceni, Journal of Mediterranean Studies, Science and Medicine. Essays: Alexander the Great; Pius II.

Massarella, Derek. Professor of History, Faculty of Economics, Chuo University, Tokyo and Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. Author of A World Elsewhere: Europe's Encounter with Japan in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (1990). Editor of The Furthest Goal: Englebert Kampfer's Encounter with Tokugawa Japan (with Beatrice M. Bodart-Bailey, 1995). Essays: Japan, pre-1870s; Kaempfer.

Matar, Nabil. Head, Humanities and Communication Department, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne. Author of Turks, Moors, and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery (1999), Islam in Britain: 1558[-]1685 (1998). Editor of Peter Sterry: Select Writings (1994). Contributor to The Landscape of Palestine: Equivocal Poetry, edited by Ibrahim Abu-Lughod et al. (1999), Religious Toleration" The Variety of Rites" from Cyrus to Defoe, edited by John Christian Laursen (1999), From Silence to Sound: Festschrift for Hussam Al Khateeb, edited by Mohammad Shaheen (2000), Images of the Other: Europe and the Muslim World before 1700, edited by David R. Blanks (1997), also journal articles in Journal of Palestine Studies, The Muslim World, Explorations in Renaissance Culture, Journal of Islamic Studies, Literature, Interpretation, Theory. Essays: al-Ayyaski; al-Ghassani; al-Ghazal; al-Mawsuli; Nasir-I-Khosrau; Palestine.

Maude, Anthony. Essays: Missionary Societies.

Mazzeo, Tilar J. Assistant Professor of English, the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh. Areas of specialization include romantic literature and travel writing. Essays: Porter; Sicily.

McColley, Margaret E. Doctoral candidate. Instructor of French, Department of French Language and Literature, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Contributor to The Woman's Journey: Essays in Travel Literature and Theory edited by Kristi Siegel (forthcoming). Essays: David-Neel; Maillart.

McGoogan, Ken. Canadian author and literary journalist. Author of Canada's Undeclared War: Fighting Words from the Literary Trenches (1991), Visions of Kerouac (1993), Calypso Warrior (1995), Kerouac's Ghost (1996) and Chasing Safiya, John Rae of the Arctic: The Pioneer Explorer, The Fate of Franklin and the Northwest Passage (forthcoming). Essays: Rae.

McGowan, Ian. Director of the Centre for Publishing Studies, University of Stirling. Author of Charles Dickens: "Little Dorrit" (1984), Principles and Practice in Book Publishing (with others, 1999). Editor of The Restoration and Eighteenth Century (1989), Journey to the Hebrides by Samuel Johnson and James Boswell (1996). Contributor to Tradition in Transition: Women Writers, Marginal Texts and the Eighteenth-Century Canon, edited by Alvaro Ribeiro and James G.Basker (1996), International Book Publishing: An Encyclopedia, edited by Philip G. Altbach and S. Hoshino(1995), World Publishing Industries Handbook (1997), Reference Guide to English Literature, edited by D.L. Kirkpatrick (1991), The New Companion to Scottish Culture, edited by David Daiches (1993). Contributor to: LOGOS, Publishing Research Quarterly, Bulletin of Japan Institute of Publishing, Malaysian Journal of Media Studies, Profit Through Innovation. Essays: Boswell; Johnson.

McNab, Christopher. Independent writer. Author of Modern Military Uniforms (2000), Vietnam War (2000), German Paratroops of World War II (2000), Twentieth Century Small Arms (2001), The Encyclopaedia of Tactics (2003). Contributor to The Ethics in Literature edited by Andrew Hadfield et al. (1998), The Encyclopaedia of the Novel edited by Paul Schellinger et al. (1998). Also contributed articles to English Journal and The Times. Essays: Egypt: Ancient; War Correspondents.

McNaylor, Mitchell. Instructor, Department of Arts and Sciences, Our Lady of the Lake College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Contributor to Reader's Guide to Military History, edited by Charles Messenger (2001). Essays: Military Memoirs.

McQuail, Josephine A. Professor, English Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville. Contributor to The Vietnam Generation Big Book, edited by Dan Duffy and Kalí Tal (1994), American National Biography, edited by John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes (1998), British Travel Writers (Dictionary of Literary Biography) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits, Encyclopedia of American Literature, edited by Steven R. Serafin (1999). Contributor to Modern Language Studies and articles on multidisciplinary and computer applications in teaching literature in Kentucky English Bulletin, Tennessee English Journal, and Talk of the Classroom. Essays: Children's Travel Writing.

McQuillan, Gene. Associate Professor of American Studies, City University of New York. Contributor of articles to College Literature, The Journal of American Culture, Aethlon, and Prisms. Essays: back-packing; Hazlitt; maps and charts, 20th century.

Melnyk, Veronica. Doctoral candidate, Department of English, University of Birmingham. Essays: crusades.

Melton, Jeffrey Alan. Associate Professor of English, Auburn University Montgomery. Author of Mark Twain, Travel Books, and Tourism:The Tide of a Great Popular Movement (2002). Contributor of articles to the journals South Atlantic Review, Studies in American Humor, Popular Culture Review, Thalia, Studies in American Culture, and Papers on Language and Literature. Essays: Twain.

Mercado, Juan Carlos. Chairperson, Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, City University of New York. Author of Building a Nation: The Case of Echeverría (1996). Editor (with Isabel Lozano-Renieblas) and contributor to Silva. Stvdia Philologica in Honorem Isaías Lerner (2001) and author of journal articles in Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Ventana Abierta: Revista Latina de Literatura, Arte y Cultura, Language and Literature Today: Proceedings of the XIXth Triennal Congress of the International Federation for Modern Languages and Literature Rocky Mountain Council for Latin American Studies, Revista Interamericana de Bibliografía/Inter-American Review of Bibliography. Essays: Coronado; Niza.

Mercer, Lorraine Gallicchio. Assistant Professor, Department of English, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon. Contributor to British Travel Writers, 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166) , edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1996). Essays: Digby.

Mesher, D. Professor of English and Humanities, and coordinator of Jewish Studies at San José State University, San José, California. Essays: Benjamin of Tudela.

Mills, Sara. Research Professor, English Studies, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield. Author of Discourse (1997), Feminist Stylistics (1995), Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism (1991). Editor of Language and Gender (1995), Gendering the Reader (1994) (with Indira Ghose) Wanderings of a Pilgrim in Search of the Picturesque by Fanny Parkes (2001). Contributor to Romantic Geographies: Discourses of Travel, 1775[-]1844, edited by Amanda Gilroy (2000). Essays: Sheldon.

Minta, Stephen. Senior Lecturer in English, University of York. Author of On a Voiceless Shore: Byron in Greece (1998), Aguirre: The Re-Creation of a Sixteenth-Century Journey Across South America (1993), Gabriel García Márquez: Writer of Colombia (1987), Love Poetry in Sixteeenth-Century France: A Study in Themes and Traditions (1977), Petrarch and Petrarchism: The English and French Traditions (1980). Essays: Albania; Byron; Crete.

Monicat, Bénédicte. Associate Professor of French and Women's Studies, Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Author of Itinéraires de l'écriture au féminin: voyageuses du 19e siècle (1996). Editor (with others) of Confrontations: Politics and Aesthetics in Nineteenth Century France (2001). Contributor to The Feminist Companion to French Literature, edited by Juliette Parnell-Smith and Mary Rice-Defosse (1999), Women Seeking Expression: France 1789[-]1914, Edited by Rosemary Lloyd and Brian Nelson (2000). Also contributed articles to Nineteenth Century French Studies, Romantisme, George Sand Studies, Gender, Place and Culture, and French Review. Essays: Tristan; Verne.

Monk, Craig. Associate Professor, Department of English, University of Lethbridge, Alberta. Contributor to Journal of American Studies, Canadian Review of American Studies, Miscelanea, Journal of Modern Literature, History of Photography. Essays: Cooper.

Montgomery, James E. University Lecturer in Islamic Studies, Faculty of Oriental Studies, Fellow of Trinity Hall, University of Cambridge. Author of The Vagaries of the Qasidah: The Tradition and Practice of Early Arabic Poetry (1997). Editor of the third edition of the Encyclopedia of Islam, The Age of Abü Tammðm and Ibn al-Rümi (a special number of the Journal of Arabic Literature) (1996) and The Era of al-Mutanabbi (a special number of Arabic and Middle Eastern Literatures) (1999). Contributor to Literary Heritage of Classical Islam, edited by Mustansir Mir and Jarl E. Fossum (1993), Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Language and Literature, edited by J.R. Smart (1996), Gobelin Europa, edited by Lars-Martin Fosse (1996), Philosophy and Art in the Islamic World, edited by U. Vermeulen and D. de Smet (1998), Classical and Popular Medieval Arabic Literature: Festschrift for H.T. Norris, edited by F. Abu-Haidar (forthcoming). Also contributed articles to the journals Journal of Arabic Literature, Edebiyyat, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Arabic and Middle Eastern Literatures, Arabica, Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies. Essays: Ibn Fadlan.

Moor, J.A. de. Senior research fellow, Department of Military History, Royal Dutch Army Ministry of Defence, The Hague. Author of Westerling's oorlog: Indonesië, 1945[-] 1950: de geschiedenis van de commando's and parachutisten in Nederlands-Indië (1999), Duizend miljoen maal vervloekt land. De Hollandse Brigade in Spanje, 1808[-]1813 (with H. Ph. Vogel, 1991), Een wereld in oorlog. Handboek militaire geschiedenis van Oudheid tot heden (with others, 1995), Nederlanders oversee: de eerste vijftig jaar, 1600[-]1650 (with Leonard Blussé, 1983). Editor (with P.G.E.I.J. van der Velde) of De Werken van Jacob Haafner, 3 vols (1992[-]97), of European Expansion and Law: The Encounter between European and Indigenous Law in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Africa and Asia (with Wolfgang J. Mommsen 1992), Our Laws, Their lands: Land Law and Land Use in Modern Colonial Societies (with Dietmar Rothermund, 1994), Pirates and Privateers: New Perspectives on the War on Trade in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries (with others, 1997), Het einde van Indië: Indische Nederlanders tijdens de Japanse bezetting en de dekolonisatie (with Wim Willems, 1995). Essays: Bali; Haafner; Java.

Morgan, Marjorie. Associate Professor of History, Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Author of Manners, Morals and Class in England, 1774[-]1858 (1994) and contributor to History Today. Essays: Fountaine.

Morin, Karen M. Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. Numerous articles in the journals Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Gender, Place and Culture, and Journal of Historical Geography. Essays: United States, Midwest; Workman.

Moskal, Jeanne. Adviser. Professor of English at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Author of Blake, Ethics, and Forgiveness (1994) and editor of Mary Shelley's travel writings for The Novels and Selected Works of Mary Shelley, 8 vols (general editor Nora Crook 1996). She is currently working on a study of British women travel writers and the politics of the Napoleonic Wars. Essays: Radcliffe; Starke.

Moss, Sarah. Research Fellow, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford University. Author of Scott's Last Biscuit: Explorers of the Arctic and Antarctic (forthcoming). Contributed to Sea Changes, edited by Bernhard Klein (2001), Eating Culture, edited by Tobias Doring (2001), The New Dictionary of National Biography (forthcoming). Essays: Arctic; Coleridge; Franklin; Hudson's Bay Company; Sailing Ships.

Nash, Geoffrey. Senior Lecturer, English Department, University of Sunderland. Author of The Arab Writer in English: Arab Themes in a Metropolitan Language, 1908[-]1958 (1998). Contributed to Desert Travellers, from Herodotus to T.E. Lawrence, edited by Janet Starkey and Okasha El Daly (2000) and the journals Islamic Quarterly, Journeys, and Trivium. Essays: al-Rihani; Curzon, George; Palgrave.

Nattermann, Udo. Adjunct Professor of English, University of Indianapolis, Indiana. Contributor to Encyclopedia of American Literature of the Sea and the Great Lakes edited by Jill B. Gidmark (2001), and American Travel Writers 1776[-]1864 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 183) edited by James J. Schramer and Donald Ross (1997). Also contributed articles to The International Fiction Review, Modern Age, Essays in Literature, The Malcolm Lowry Review, Massachusetts Studies in English. Essays: Berlin; Germany.

Neckar, Lance M. Professor of Landscape Architecture and Associate Dean, College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Author (with Daniel Nadenicek) of the Introduction to Landscape Architecture as Applied to the Wants of the West by H.W.S. Cleveland (Library of American Landscape History) edited by William H. Tishler (forthcoming), and author of contributions to Midwestern Landscape Architecture (Library of American Landscape History) edited by William H. Tishler (2000), The Regional Garden in the United States (1995), Modern Landscape Architecture: A Critical Review, edited by Marc Treib (1993). Also journal articles to Landscape Journal, Journal of Garden History, Journal of the School of Architecture and editor (with Patrick Condon) of "The Avant-Garde and the Landscape: Can They Be Reconciled?", a special issue of Landscape Journal. Essays: Olmsted.

Neville-Sington, Pamela. Independent writer and scholar based in London. Author (with David Sington) of Paradise Dreamed: How Utopian Thinkers Have Changed the Modern World (1993). Author of Fanny Trollope: The Life and Adventures of a Clever Woman (1997) and (with Anthony Payne) of An Interim Census of Surviving copies of Hakluyt's Divers Voyages and Principal Navigations (1996). Editor of Domestic Manners of the Americans by Fanny Trollope (1997). Contributed Introduction to Thackeray by Anthony Trollope (1997), Texts and Cultural Change in Early Modern England, edited by C.C. Brown and A.F. Marotti (1997), The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, vol. 3:1400[-]1557, edited by Lotte Hellinga and J. B. Trapp (1999). Also contributed to The Purchas Handbooks: Studies of the life, times and writings of Samuel Purchas 1577[-]1626, 2 vols., edited by J. E. Pennington (1997), Frances and Trollope and the Novel of Social Change, edited by Brenda Ayres (2002), New Dictionary of National Biography, and Persuasions: The Jane Austen Journal. Essays: Trollope, Frances.

Ng, Maria Noëlle. Chiang Ching-kuo Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature, Religion, Film and Media Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton. Contributor to A Vision of the Orient: Texts, Contexts, and Intertexts of Madama Butterfly, edited by Sherrill Grace and Jonathan Wisenthal (forthcoming) and the journals Canadian Literature and Essays on Canadian Writing. Essays: North.

Nilges-Matias, Laura. Doctoral candidate, Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois. Contributed to British Travel Writers, 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166), edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1996). Essays: Evelyn.

Oddy, Nicholas. Senior Lecturer, Design History in the Department of Historical and Critical Studies, Glasgow School of Art, and consultant to Phillips auctioneers. Also on the steering panel of the International Conference of Cycling History. Contributed to The Gendered Object, edited by Pat Kirkham (1996), Cycle History 9, edited by Glen Norcliffe and R. Van der Plas (1998), The Culture of Sewing: Gender, Consumption, and Home Dressmaking, edited by Barbara Burman (1999). Area of specialization is cycling history and related areas. Essays: bicycle.

Ofcansky, Thomas. Department of State, US Government, Washington DC. Author of Historical Dictionary of Kenya (2000), Historical Dictionary of Tanzania (1997), Uganda.Tarnished Pearl of Africa (1996), British East Africa, 1856[-]1963: An Annotated Bibliography (1985), Paradise Lost: A History of Game Preservation in British East Africa, 1895[-]1963 (forthcoming). Editor of Ethiopia: A Country Study (1993). Contributor to Ghana: A Country Study (1995), Indian Ocean: Five Island Countries edited by Helen Chapin Metz (1995), World War II in Europe, Africa, and the Americas edited by Loyd E.Lee (1997), White Nile, Black Blood: War, Leadership and Ethnicity from Khartoum to Kampala edited by Jay Spaulding and Stephanie Beswick (2000). Also contributed articles to Africana Journal, History in Africa, Journal of Forest History, Journal of African Studies, and the Uganda Journal. Essays: Barth; Wissmann.

Öhrnberg, Kaj. Associate editor of Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, series Humaniora and teaches at the Institute for Asian and African Studies at the University of Helsinki. Author of The Offspring of Fatima. Dispersal and Ramification (1983). Editor (with Sahban Mroueh) of Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq: Kitab al-Tabikh (1987). Contributed to Teaching Islam in Finland edited by Nils G. Holm (1993), La alimentación en las culturas islámicas edited by Manuela Marín and David Waines (1994). Also contributed articles to the Encyclopaedia of Islam and Studia Orientalia. Essays: Arabia; Wallin.

Osinubi, Taiwo Adetunju. Doctoral candidate, Programme in Comparative Literature, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Essays: West Africa.

Paniccia Carden, Mary. Assistant Professor of English, Department of English, Humanities and Languages, Southeastern Oklahoma State University. Author of articles in Twentieth-Century Literature, Modern Fiction Studies, Prose Studies, and a/b: Auto/Biography Studies. Essays: Eberhardt.

Pappano, Margaret Aziza. Assistant Professor, Department of English and Comparative Literature, Columbia University. Author of articles on medieval English, French, and Latin literature and culture. Essays: Mandeville's Travels.

Paterson, James. Doctoral thesis submitted to the University of Sydney on the literature of travel to Italy in the Tudor and early Stuart period. Research interests centre on the history and literature of early modern travel throughout the "Old World" as well as early modern European history generally. Essays: Bell; Constantinople; India: Moghul; Italy, pre-1800; Knox; Levant Company; Ottoman empire; Richardson; Shaw; Venice.

Pearsall, Alan. Formerly Historian, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England. Editor of 19th-century section of British Naval Documents 1204[-]1960 edited by N.A.M. Rodger et al. (1993), Shipping: A Survey of Historical Records (1971), Naval Aspects of the Landings on the French Coast 1758 edited by N.A.M.Rodger in Naval Miscellany (1964). Contributed to The North Sea edited by Arne Bang-Andersen et al. (1985), The Irish Sea edited by Michael McCaughan and J. Appleby (1989), Les Flottes des Compagnies des Indes, 1600[-]1857, Northern Seas Yearbook 1996 edited by P. Holm (1996). Essays: Flinders; King; Logbooks.

Pelletier, Yvonne Elizabeth. Department of English, University of Toronto. Author of Cartographies of Self: Mapping in the Narratives of Sir Richard F. Burton, Herman Melville, and Charles Dickens (unpublished doctoral thesis 2001). Essays: Thackeray.

Pennec, Hervé. Assistant, University of Paris I, La Sorbonne. Author of a thesis on the relations between the Jesuits and political powers in Ethiopia (16th[-]17th centuries). Essays: (with Manuel João Ramos) Páez.

Perivolaris, John D. Assistant Professor in Hispanic and Caribbean Literatures and Cultures, University of Manchester. Author of Puerto Rican Cultural Identity and the Work of Luis Rafael Sánchez (2000) and editor (with Conrad James) of The Cultures of the Hispanic Caribbean (2000). Research interests include colonialism and postcolonialism in the Spanish Caribbean, diasporic literatures in Spanish and English, and the cultural repercussions of translation. Essays: National Geographical Society.

Pertaub, Winston. Lecturer and Head of Department. University of Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom. Editor of Viaje a la Alcarria by Camilo José Cela for Bristol Classical. Essay: Spain, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.

Pettinger, Alasdair. Information Officer, Scottish Music Information Centre and independent scholar based in Glasgow. Editor of Always Elsewhere: Travels of the Black Atlantic (1998). Contributor to Liberating Sojourn: Frederick Douglass and Transatlantic Reform edited by Alan J. Rice and Martin Crawford (1999), and the journals Studies in Travel Writing , New Formations, and Research in African Literatures. Essays: England: 20th century.

Pfeiffer, John R. Professor of English, Department of Language and Literature, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant. Author of Fantasy and Science Fiction in the Air Force Academy Library: An Author-Title Catalogue (1971), Fantasy and Science Fiction: A Critical Guide (1971). Editor of Shaw and Science Fiction in The Shaw Review (1973).Contributor to Anatomy of Wonder: Science Fiction edited by Neil Barron (1987), Ursula K. Le Guin: Voyager to Inner Lands and to Outer Space edited by Joe De Bolt (1979), Supernatural Fiction Writers edited by E.F. Bleiler (1985), British Travel Writers, 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1996), Festschrift for Stanley Weintraub edited by Susan Rusinko (1998). Contributed articles to the journals Revue des Langues Vivantes, Papers on Language and Literature, Extrapolation, The Shaw Annual. Essays: Shelley, Mary.

Pires, María Laura. Essays: Barros, João de; Henry the Navigator; Portugal.

Poe, Marshall. Essays: Muscovy.

Polezzi, Loredana, Lecturer in Italian Studies, University of Warwick. Author of Translating Travel: Contemporary Italian Travel Writing in English Translation (2001). Editor (with Roberto Di Napoli and Anny King) of Fuzzy Boundaries? Reflections on Modern Languages and the Humanities (2001). Editor and translator of Lady Bell, Piccolo manuale di giochi per viaggiatori (1990). Contributed to Piero della Francesca: nella cultura europea e americana edited by Attilio Brilli (1993), Homo Viator edited by Bonita Cleri (1997), authorof Target Culture, Target Language, edited by Karen Seago and Nicole McBride ((with Roberto Di Napoli, 2000), European Travel in the 1930s edited by D. Duncan and C. Burdett (forthcoming). Contributed journal articles to New Comparison, Intersezioni, Modern Languages Review, The Translator, special issue on Translation & Minority, Antologia Viesseux. Essays: Italy: since1800.

Porter, David. Assistant Professor of English and Comparative Literature University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Author of Ideographia: The Chinese Cipher in Early Modern Europe (2001). Editor of Between Men and Feminism (1992), and Internet Culture (1997). Contributor to journals Comparative Literature Studies, Eighteenth-Century Studies, Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture, Eighteenth-Century Life, and Medieaevalia on early Western responses to Chinese culture and the relationship between gender and aesthetics. Essays: Montagu.

Postnikov, Alexei. Deputy Director of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of the History of Science and Technology, Moscow. Author of Razvitie kartografii i voprosy ispol'zovania starykh kart [The Development of World Cartography and Problems of Old Maps] (1985), Petrovskie geodezisty i pervyi pechatnyi plan Moskvy [Geodesists of Peter the Great] (with L.A. Goldenberg, 1990), Razvitie krupnomasshtabnoi kartografii v Rossii [The Development of Large Scale Cartography in Russia] (1989), The Mapping of Russian America: A History of Russian-American Contacts in Cartography (1995), Russia in Maps: A History of Geographical Study and Cartography of the Country (1996). Editor of Vzaimodeistvie obzchestva i priordy v prozesse obzccccchestvennoi evoluzii [The Influence of Society on Nature during Human History] (1981), Karpinskii Collection Checklist (1994), of Mare Balticum: The Baltic: Two Thousand Years (with others, 1995), Istoria izuchenia, ispol'zovania i osvoenia prirodnykch resursov Moskvy i Moskovskogto regiona [A History of Geographical Study and Exploitation of the Natural Resources of Moscow and the Moscow Region] (with others, 1997), and Tvortsi otechestvennoy mauki: geografii [Creators of Russian Science: Geographers] (1996). Also contributor to the journals Mapline, Science in Russia, Imago Mundi, Terrae Incognitae, among others. Essays: Central Asia: Russian exploration; Dezhnev; Great Game; Nikitin; Pacific Ocean: routes across; Przheval'skii; Semenov; Turkestan; Volga River; Yermak.

Prono, Luca. Doctoral candidate in the School of American and Canadian Studies, University of Nottingham. Editor of film review section of Scope: An Online Journal of Film Studies. Contributor Twentieth-Century American Cultural Theorists (Dictionary of Literary Biography 246) edited by Paul Hansom (2001). Also contributed articles to the journals Links and Letters, and International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies. Essays: Dante.

Pursglove, Glyn. Senior Lecturer, English Department, University of Wales, Swansea. Author of Francis Warner and Tradition (1981) Francis Warner's Poetry (1988), A Biography of Peter Russell (1995). Editor of Henry Reynolds: Tasso's "Aminta" and other Poems (1991), I poeti ferraresi nel Rinasciemento inglese (1992), The Poems of Henry Hughes (1997), Something about Poetry: Selected Letters and Essays by Peter Russell (1997), Peter Russell: From the Apoalypse of Quintilius (1997). Contributor to Othello dal testa alla scena edited by Mariangela Tempera (1983), The Renaissance in Ferrara and its European Horizons edited by J. Salmons and W. Moretti (1984), Studies in the Commedia dell'Arte edited by D. J.George and C. J. Gossip (1993), Diversions: A Celebration for James Kirkup on his Eightieth Birthday edited by J. Hogg (1998), Poetry Now: Contemporary British and Irish Poetry in the Making edited by H. Klein et al. (1999). Essays: Jenkinson; Wotton.

Quanchi, Max. Senior Lecturer in the Asia-Pacific program, Faculty of Arts, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane. Author of Pacific People and Change (1991). Editor (with Ron Adams), Cultural Contact in the Pacific (1993), Messy Entanglements (with Alaima Talu, 1995) and of special issue of the journal Pacific Studies on Imaging, Representation and Photography and is preparing books on the career of the 1920s Pacific Island photojournalist Thomas McMahon and the photographic imaging of colonial Papua. Essays: Fiji; Mawson; Pacific Ocean islands; Pacific Ocean: post-exploration; Papua New Guinea; photography.

Ramos, Manuel João. Department of Anthropology - ISCTE, Lisbon. Author of Histórias Etíopes: Diário de Viagem (2000), Ensaios de Mitologia Cristã (1997). Editor, with João Paulo Cotrim and author with Girma Fisseha and João Paulo Cotrim, of Ethiopian Narrative Painting (2000), editor of O Destino Etíope do Preste João [The Ethiopian Destiny of Prester John] (1999), A Carta Do Preste João: Versõ Latinas Medievais (1998). Contributor to The Anthropology of Power: Empowerment and Disempowerment in Changing Structures, edited by Angela Cheater (1999), Dominant Culture as Foreign Culture: Dominant Group(s) in the Eyes of the Minorities, edited by Janusz Mucha (1999), Condicionantes Culturais da Literatura de Viagens: Estudos e Bibliografias edited by Fernando Cristóvão (1999), La Mirada Cruzada en la Peninsula Ibérica: Perspectivas desde la Antropologia Social en España y Portugal, edited by Maria Catedra (2001). Also contributed numerous articles to journals. Essays: Ethiopia/Abyssinia; Nile, Blue; Páez.

Raphael, Sandra. Adviser. Independent writer and editor based in Oxford. Author of The Illustrated Herbal (with Wilfrid Blunt, 2nd edition 1994), An Oak Spring Sylva (1989) and An Oak Spring Pomona (1990). Contributor to The Oxford Companion to Gardens edited by Patrick Goode and Michael Lancaster (1986), and also to Book Collector, Country Life, Garden, Gardens Illustrated. Essays: Banks; Plant Hunting: Asia; Plant Hunting: Europe; Tournefort.

Rath, Sura Prasad. Professor, Department of English, Louisiana State University, Shreeveport. Author (with William Shaw) Sitakant Mahapatra: The Mythnographer of Time (2001). Editor (with Mary Neff Shaw) Flannery O'Connor: New Perspectives (1996) Contributor to The Carribbean that Isn't? edited by Anne Malena and Pascale de Souza (2001), British Travel Writing 1940[-]97 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1999), Folklore Encyclopedia, edited by Peter J. Claus (1998), R. K. Narayan: Critical Perspectives, edited by A.L. McLeod (1994). Contributor to Diogenes, Literature and Belief, College Literature, Journal of Contemporary Thought, Flannery O'Connor Bulletin, Connecticut Review, Comparative Literature Studies, Ariel, Southern Quarterly, Journal of Contemporary Thought, Jouvert, Indian Journal of American Studies, South Central Review,South Asian Review, Studies in Short Fiction, Journal of the Orissa Society of the Americas. Essays: Naipaul.

Raver, Wendy. Adjunct Professor, Program in Religion, Hunter College, City University of New York, also Instructor, Department of Social Sciences, New School University, and Library Collection Manager, Brooklyn Museum of Art. Contributor to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt edited by Donald B. Redford (2001), and the Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar of New York. Essays: Pococke; Volney.

Ravi, Srilata. Assistant Professor, Department of English Language and Literature and Academic Convenor, European Studies, National University of Singapore. Author of L'Inde romancée: L'Inde dans le genre romanesque français depuis 1947 (1997). Contributor to Identités culturelles en Europe et en Éxtrême Orient, Actes du Colloque de l'Université d'été francophone des pays d'Asie du Sud-Est (1998), 50 years of Indian Writing, edited by R.K.Dhawan (1999), Rethinking Creative Processes, edited by Michelle Royer and Françoise Grauby (2001), New Approaches in Post-colonial Cultures: A Francophone Reader edited by Kamal Salhi (forthcoming). Contributor to the journals Alif-Journal of Comparative Poetics, French Cultural Studies, South-east Asian Journal of Social Science, Frontières. Essays: East India Company :French.

Read, Dennis M. Associate Professor, Department of English, Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Contributor to British Travel Writers 1910[-]1939 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 195) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1998), British Travel Writers, 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204), edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1999) and the New Dictionary of National Biography (forthcoming) Contributor to the journals Philological Quarterly, Modern Philology, The American Scholar, American Literature, Notes and Queries, Studies in Bibliography, The Wordsworth Circle, Bulletin of Research in the Humanities, Blake: An Illustrated Quarterly, Nineteenth-Century Prose. Essays: Lewis; Newby.

Reed-Danahay, Deborah. Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Texas, Arlington. Author of Education and Identity in Rural France: The Politics of Schooling (1996). Editor of Auto/Ethnography: Rewriting the Self and the Social (1997). Contributor to Occidentalism edited by James Carrier (1995), The Anthropology of Friendship edited by Sandra Bell and Simon Coleman (1999), Schooling the Symbolic Animal edited by Bradley Levinson (2000), and Handbook of Ethnography edited by Paul Atkinson et al.. (2001). Also contributed articles to the journals American Anthropologist, American Ethnologist, Anthropological Quarterly, Ethnologie Francaise, Qualitative Research, and Biography. Essays: Ethnography.

Rees, Joan. Professor Emeritus of English Literature, University of Birmingham. Author of Samuel Daniel: a critical and biographical study (1964), Fulke Greville: A Critical Biography (1971), Shakespeare and the Story (1978), The Poetry of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1981), Sir Philip Sidney and Arcadia (1991), Writings on the Nile: Harriet Martinueau, Florence Nightingale, Amelia Edwards (1995), Amelia Edwards, Traveller, Novelist and Egyptologist (1998). Editor of Selected Writings of Fulke Greville (1973). Contributor to A Book of Masques edited by T.J.B. Spencer and S.W.Wells (1967), Essays by Divers Hands (1988), Literature and Nationalism edited by V. Newey and A Thompson (1991). Contributed journal articles to Review of English Studies, Modern Language Review, Victorian Studies, Studies in Philology , Shakespeare Survey among others. Essays: Edwards.

Reilly, Terry. Associate Professor of English, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Editorial advisory board of the Oklahoma City University Law Review. Contributor to a number of reference works including The Reference Guide to American Literature edited by Thomas Riggs (2000). Area of specialization is the relationship between early modern English law and Renaissance literature. Essays: Barrow; Byrd; Dog-Sled; Royal Geographical Society; Siberia.

Rhoades, Huebscher Carol. Lecturer, University Extension, University of Texas at Austin. Contributor to Border Crossings: Essays on Mary Wollstonecraft's Letters from Scandinavia, edited by Anka Ryall and Catherine Sandbach-Dahlström (forthcoming), Nineteenth-Century British Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook, edited by Abigail Burnham Bloom (2000), British Travel Writers, 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1996), British Travel Writers, 1910[-]1939 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 195) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M.Gergits (1998), British Travel Writers, 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1999). Essays: Iceland; Murphy.

Riffenburgh, Beau. Adviser. Head, Polar History Group, Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge. Author of The Myth of the Explorer: The Press, Sensationalism, and Geographical Discovery (1993). Author (with David Boss) of Running Wild (1984), Great Ones (1989), of Cathedrals of the World (with Elizabeth Cruwys, 1997) and The Photographs of H.G. Ponting (1999). Editor of The Great White South (with others, 1999). Editor of the journal Polar Record. Essays: Baker; Bennett; Cameron; Stanley.

Robinson, Michael. Professor of Drama and Scandinavian Studies, University of East Anglia. Author of The Long Sonata of the Dead: A Study of Samuel Beckett (1969), Strindberg and Autobiography (1986), Strindberg's Letters (1992), and Studies in Strindberg (1998). Editor of Strindberg and Genre (1991), Strindberg: Selected Essays (1996), Expressionism and Modernism (1999), Nordic Letters 1870-1910 (1999). Contributor to Facets of European Modernism, edited by Janet Garton (1986), Strindberg and History, edited by Birgitta Steene (1992). Essays: Linnaeus

Roeper, Viebeke. Secretary General of the Linschoten Society and director of a company which researches historical and editorial projects. Author of De schipbreuk van de Batavia, 1629 [Shipwreck of the Batavia, 1629] (1993). Author (with Diederick Wildeman Ontdekkingsreizen van Nederlanders. 1590[-]1650 [Dutch Voyages of Discovery 1590[-]1650] (1993), Reizen op Papier. Journalen en reisverslagen van Nederlandse ontdekkingsreizigers, kooplieden en avonturiers [Voyages and Travels on Paper. Journals and Travel Accounts of Dutch Discovers, Merchants and Adventurers] (1996), In dienst van de Comagnie. Leven bij de VOC in honderd getuigenissen 1602[-]1799 [In the Service of the Company. Life with the Dutch East India Company by a Hundred Witnesses 1602[-]1799] (with Roelof van Gelder, 1996). Editor (with others) of Souffrir pour Parvenir: De wereld van Jan Huygen van Linschoten (1998) and editor of the journals Werken der Linschoten-Vereeniging [Works issued by the Linschoten Society] Amstelodamum. Contributor to the book Batavia te Water, edited by Viebeke Roeper (with others). Essays: (with Diederick Wildeman) East India Company (Dutch); Linschoten-Vereeniging; Lodewycksz; Veer.

Rogerson, Barnaby. Publisher, Sickle Moon Books and Eland Publishing, London, and Director of the Association for the Study of North African Travel. Author of A Traveller's History of North Africa (1998), Morocco (2000), Tunisia (with Rose Barin) (1998), Cyprus (1994). Editor of North Africa Travel, No. 1 (2001), Poetry of Place (2001), Poetry of Place, Desert Air and Araby the blest (2001), One Hundred Years of Cottesmore (1998). Contributor of numerous articles on North Africa, the Sahara and Turkey to national newpapers and magazines. Essays: Africa: north; Ibn Khaldun; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia: post-1600.

Rollinger, Robert. Professor, Institut für Alte Geschichte und Sprachen und Kulturen des Alten Orients, Universität Innsbruck. Author of Herodots Babylonischer Logos: Eine kritische Untersuchung der Glaubwürdigkeitsdisdussion an Hand ausgewählter Beispiele (1993), Author (with Reinhold Bichler) Herodot. Eine Einführung (2000). Editor (with Christoph Ulf) of Geschlechterrollen und Frauenbild in der Perspektive antiken Autoren (2000), Althistorische Studien im Spannungsfeld zwischen Universal- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Festschrift für Franz Hampl gedacht zum 90. Geburtstag am 8. Dezember 2000 (with Peter W. Haider, 2001), Frauenbild und Geschlechterrollen in Realität - Projektion - Ethnographie.Geschlechterrollen und Frauenbild in der Perspektive antiker Autoren (with Christoph Ulf, forthcoming), Continuity of Empire. Assyria, Media, Persia: Proceedings of the International Meeting in Padua, 26th[-]28th April 2001 (with others, forthcoming). Contributor to Wege zur Genese griechischer Identität. Die Bedeutung der früharchaischen Zeit, edited by Christoph Ulf (1996), Melammu Symposia 1: The heirs of Assyria edited by Sanna Aro and R. M. Whiting (2000), Geschlechterrollen und Frauenbild in der Perspektive antiker Autoren edited by contributor (with Christoph Ulf) (2000), Ideologie, Sport, Aussenseiter. Aktuelle Aspekte einer Beschäftigung mit der antiken Gesellschaft, edited by Christoph Ulf (2000). Contributor to many journals. Essays: periplous; Pytheas of Massilia.

Rubiés, Joan-Pau. Lecturer in International History, The London School of Economics and Political Science Author of Travel and Ethnology in the Renaissance: South India through European eyes, 1250[-]1625 (2000). Editor (with Jas Elsner) of Voyages and Visions: Towards a Cultural History of Travel (1999), Shifting Cultures: Interaction and Discourse in the Expansion of Europe (with Henriette Bugge, 1995). Contributor to Facing each other, edited by Anthony Pagden (2000). Also articles in the journals Journeys, Mare Liberum, History and Anthropology, Portuguese Studies, Journal of the History of Ideas. Essays: Cieza de Leon; Valle; Varthema.

Ryan, Simon. Senior Lecturer, School of Arts and Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane. Author of The Cartographic Eye: How Explorers Saw Australia (1996). Editor of The Body in the Library (with Leigh Dale, 1998). Essays: Eyre; Missionary Narratives; Stuart; Sturt.

Savin, Ada. Professor of American Studies, University of Versailles. Author of Les Chicanos: Etrangers dans leur propre pays ? (1998). Editor of Mary Rowlandson: Captive des Indiens (1995). Contributor to New Immigrant Literatures in the United States, edited by A.S. Knippling (1996), An Other Tongue: Nation and Ethnicity in the Linguistic Borderlands, edited by Alfred Arteaga (1994), Parcours identitaires edited by G. Fabre (1993). Contributor to the journals Caliban (autobiography), Bilingual Press (Chicano literature), Prooftexts (Jewish-American autobiography). Essays: exile.

Savours, Ann (Mrs. Ann Shirley) . Independent scholar based in London. Formerly at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge and the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Author of Scott's Last Voyage (1974), The Voyages of "Discovery" (1994), The Search for the North West Passage (1999). Editor (with H.G.R. King) of the Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions, 1901[-]1904, by Edward Wilson (1973), Polar Pundit: reminiscences about Brian Birley Roberts (1995). Contributor to Compassing the Vaste Globe of the Earth: Studies in the History of the Hakluyt Society edited by R.C. Bridges and P.E.H. Hair (1996) (with Margaret Deacon) in Starving Sailors: the influence of Nutrition upon Naval and Maritime History edited by J. Watt et al. (1981). Tasmanian Insights: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Thomas Stilwell edited by Gillian Winter (1992), The Royal Geographical Society History of World Exploration edited by John Keay (1991), Meta Incognita, A Discourse of Discovery: Martin Frobisher's Arctic Expeditions, 1576[-]1578 edited by Thomas H. B. Symons. Also contributed articles to Polar Record, The Mariner's Mirror, Geographical Journal, and Arctic. Essays: Northwest Passage.

Schelugin, Genadii A. Curator. Chekhov House Museum, Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine. Essays: Chekhov; Crimea.

Schönle, Andreas. Assistant Professor of Russian Literature, Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Author of Authenticity and Fiction in the Russian Literary Journey, 1790[-]1840 (2000). Contributor to Gender and Sexuality in Russian Civilization edited by Peter Barta (forthcoming), The Russian Review, Slavic Review and Slavic and East European Journal. Essays: Caucasus: Russian exploration; Karamzin; Radishchev.

Schramer, James J. Professor, Department of English, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio. Editor (with Donald Ross) of American Travel Writers, 1850[-]1915 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 189) (1998) and American Travel Writers, 1776[-]1864 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 183) (1997), also contributed articles to both books above and to British Travel Writers, 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166) (1996) and British Travel Writers, 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) (1999) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits. Contributed articles to the journals Arizona Quarterly (on the rhetoric of violence in the sermons of American Puritans), Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses (on magical realism in the Vietnam war fiction of Tim O'Brien), and Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers (on James Fenimore Cooper and American landscape aesthetics). Essays: Thubron.

Schröder, Stefan. Teaching assistant, History Department, University of Kassel. Area of interest is medieval history, with particular emphasis on pilgrimage to Jersusalem in the Middle Ages. Essays: Casola.

Schulenburg, Alexander Hugo. Research Officer, Corporation of London. Contributor to The Local Historian, Journal of Historical Geography, and St Helena: A Quincentenary History (forthcoming). Essays: London.

Schwiezer, Bernard. Essays: Waugh, Evelyn.

Schwetman, John David. Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Minnesota at Duluth. Essays: Steinbeck.

Sheller, Mimi. Lecturer in Sociology, Lancaster University, England. Author of Democracy After Slavery: Black Publics and Peasant Radicalism in Haiti and Jamaica (2000), Consuming the Caribbean: From Arawaks to Zombies (forthcoming). Contributor to Gender and Slave Emancipation in the Atlantic World edited by Pam Scully and Diana Paton (2001). Also contributed articles on gender, freedom, and citizenship in Slavery and Abolition, New West India Guide, and Plantation Society in the Americas; and articles on publics and mobility in Theory and Society and the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Essays: Haiti; slave narratives.

Silva, Alan J. Assistant Professor, Department of English, Hamline University, St. Paul, Minnesota. Contributor to the journals Early American Literature and Post Identity. Essays: Smith.

impson, Mark. Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Alberta. Editor of, and contributor to, "New Metropolitan Forms," co-edited with Jonathan Beller and Neferti Tadiar, Polygraph 8/9 (1996). Contributor to Technology and the American Imagination (1994) and Essays on Canadian Writing 68 (on taxidermy in North America circa 1900); Cultural Critique 37 (on the politics of mobility surrounding Nat Turner's 1831 slave revolt); Alberta Museums Review 23:2 (on interrelations between national parks and museums); Canadian Review of American Studies (on travel as disciplinary practice circa 1900); Essays on Canadian Writing 53(on Michael Ondaatje's The English Patient); Alberta 1:2 (on Robert Kroetsch's Badlands). Essays: hunting and big game expeditions; postcards; Rocky Mountains.

Skordili, Beatrice. Teaches English Literature and Composition at New York College in Athens and is completing a dissertation at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. Her work encompasses Anglo-American 20th-century literature, narratology, psychoanalytic and poststructuralist theories, film, aesthetics/poetics, art history, and culture studies. Essays: Forster, E.M.

Slater, Renee. Senior Lecturer, School of English, University of the West of England, Bristol. Contributor (with Kate Fulbrook) to Writing and America edited by Gavin Cologne-Brookes et al. (1996) and to Journal of American Studies. Essays: Marquette; de Soto.

Smethurst, Paul. Lecturer, English Department, The University of Hong Kong. Author of The Postmodern Chronotope: Reading Space and Time in Contemporary Fiction (2000), and a number of articles on postmodern fiction and travel writing. Essays: Defoe; Fictional Travel; Imperialist Narratives; Lévi-Strauss; Morris; Odoric; Swift; Theroux; tourism.

Smith, Christopher. Independent scholar based in Norwich. Formerly Reader in French at the School of Languages, Linguistics and Translation Studies, University of East Anglia. Author of Jean Anouilh (1985) and Alabaster, Bikini and Calvados (1985). Editor of Dramatic Works by Jean de la Taille (1972), Two Tragedies by Antoine de Montchrestien (1972), France et Grande Bretagne depuis la chute de Charles Premier à celle de Jacques II (1990), Jean Ducis, Othello (1992), and Essays in Annotated Translation (1994). Contributor to Form and Meaning: Aesthetic Coherence in Seventeenth-Century French Drama edited by William D. Howarth et al. (1982), Robinson Crusoe: Myths and Metamorphoses edited by Lieve Spaas and Brian Stimpson (1996), Kreigerserlebnis und Legendenbildung: Das Bild des modernen Kreiges in Literatur, Theater, Photographie und Film edited by Thomas F. Schneider (1997), From Gaelic to Romantic: Ossianic Translations edited by Fiona Stafford and Howard Gaskill (1998), Private and Public Voices in Victorian Poetry edited by Sabine Coelsch-Foisner and Holger Klein (2000). Contributor to the books Encyclopedia of Literary Translation into English edited by Olive Classe (2000), Encyclopedia of Life Writing edited by Margaretta Jolly (2001), Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760[-]1850 edited by Chris Murray (forthcoming), and the journals Shakespeare Yearbook, Renaissance Studies, Seventeenth-Century French Studies, French Studies Bulletin, Modern Languages in Scotland, Romance Notes, Moreana, New Comparison, Journal of European Studies, Thomas Hardy Journal and Norwich Papers. Essays: Dufferin & Ava, Marquis of; La Salle; Wraxall; Young, Arthur.

Smith, Piers Michael. Instructor, English Department, Kuwait University. Author of Colonial Obscene: Reading Cultural Texts on Borneo, Ex-centrically (unpublished thesis 1997) and an article in the journal Jouvert. Essays: Borneo.

Smith, Stephanie. Doctoral candidate, Department of English, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. Essays: Atlantic Ocean: Middle Passage.

Sousa, Ronald W. Professor of Portuguese, Spanish, and Comparative Literature, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Author of The Rediscoverers: Major Figures in the Portuguese Literature of National Regeneration (1981). Author (with Joel Weinsheimer) of The Humanities in Dispute (1998), of Reading the Harper: On A Portuguese Immigrant Poem, California, 1901 (with Maria A. Duarte, 1996), Editor of Problems of Enlightenment in Portugal (1984). Translator of Control of the Imaginary by Luiz Costa Lima (1988). Corresponding Editor, Chasqui, Revista de Literatura Latinoamericana, 1989[-]1995, and member of the editorial board of Ellipsis, Discourse, Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, North Carolina Series in Romance Languages and Literatures. Contributor to Entre Resistir e Identificar-se: Para uma Teoria da Prática da Narrativa Brasileira de Autoria Feminina, edited by Peggy Sharpe (1997), El Teatro Español del Siglo XVIII, edited by J.M. Sala Valldaura (1996), The Project of Prose in Early Modern Europe and the New World edited by Elizabeth Fowler and Roland Greene (1997), Literature Among Discourses: The Spanish Golden Age, edited by Wlad Godzich and Nicholas Spadaccini (1987), The Institutionalization of Literature in Spain, edited by Wlad Godzich and Nicholas Spadaccini (1987). Also contributed articles to the following journals Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Chasqui, Discourse, Ellipsis, Ideologies and Literature, Luso-Brazilian Review, Portuguese Literary and Cultural Studies, Revista Camoniana, Romance Languages Annual, Tropelías. Essays: História Trágico-Marítima; Mendes-Pinto.

Speake, Jennifer Writer and freelance editor. Among her publications are: A Treasury of Biblical Quotations (1982); Encyclopedia of the Renaissance (first edition 1988 with the late Thomas G. Bergin; second edition forthcoming); Dent Dictionary of Symbols in Christian Art (1994); Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases (1997); Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (1999); Oxford Concise Dictionary of Proverbs (1992, second edition with John Simpson; third edition, 1998; fourth edition, forthcoming). Essays: Bus; Cape of Good Hope, Pre-1806; Collections of Literature of Travel and Exploration, Antologies; Greece, 1600-1821; Leake, William Martin.

Steinacher, Roland. Doctoral candidate, Institut für Alte Geschichte, Mitglied des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Universität Innsbruck. Author of "Die Genese von Artemis und Athene" (1997), "Der Laterculus Regum VVandalorum et Alanorum" (2001). Contributor to Historisches Lexikon für das Fürstentum Liechtenstein, Der Neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike, Bausteine zur liechtensteinischen Geschichte, edited by Arthur Brunhart (1999), Liechtenstein und die Revolution von 1848, edited by Arthur Brunhart (2000). Essays: Black Sea.

Steinitz, Rebecca. Assistant Professor of English, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio. Essays: diaries.

Sterling, Eric. Professor of English, Auburn University, Montgomery, Alabama. Author of The Movement Towards Subversion: The English History Play from Skelton to Shakespeare (1996) Contributor to Children and War, edited by James Marten (forthcoming), Denise Levertov: New Perspectives, edited by Anne Colclough Little and Susie Paul (2000), Moral Problems Unique to the Holocaust, edited by Harry James Cargas (1999), Resisting the Holocaust, edited by Ruby Rohrlich (1998), The Muses Female Are: Martha Moulsworth and Other Women Writers of the English Renaissance, edited by Robert C. Evans and Anne C. Little (1995). Also contributed articles to The European Studies Journal, Studies in American Indian Literatures, Essays in Theatre, The Polish Review, Publications of the Arkansas Philological Association. Essays: Catlin; Ponce de Léon.

Steward, Jill. Senior Lecturer, School of Humanities, University of Northumbria. Editor (with Malcolm Gee and Tim Kirk) of and contributor to The City in Central Europe; Culture and Society from 1800 to the Present (1999), of A Sense of Place (with Alex Cowan, forthcoming). Contributor to Being Elsewhere: The Development of Mass Tourism: Politics, Practices and Identities in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Europe and North America, edited by Shelley Baranowski and Ellen Furlough (2001), Water,Culture, and Politics in Germany and the American West edited by Susan Anderson and Bruce Tabb (2001), New Directions in Urban History: Aspects of European Art, Health, Tourism and Leisure since the Enlightenment edited by Peter Borsay et al. (2000), Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity edited by Felix Driver and David Gilbert (1999). Also contributed to the journals Studies in Travel Writing, Journeys: International Journey of Travel and Travel Writing. Essays: Alps; Central Europe; illustration; journalists and journalism.

Stone, Ian R. Polar History Research Associate, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge. Contributor to Lobsticks and Stone Cairns: Human Landmarks in the Arctic edited by Richard C. Davis (1996). Editorial Advisor to the journal Polar Record, and contributor of articles to, among others, Polar Record, Arctic and The Mariner's Mirror. Essays: Davis; Hearne; Sakhalin; Trollope, Anthony.

Strachan, Michael. Deceased, formerly Vice President, The Hakluyt Society, and Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Author of The Life and Adventures of Thomas Coryate (1962), Sir Thomas Roe 1581[-]1644: A Life (1989), The Ben Line 1825[-]1982: An Anecdotal History (1992), Esmond de Beer: Scholar and Benefactor (1995). Editor of The East India Company Journals of Captain William Keeling and Master Thomas Bonner, 1615[-]1617 (with Boies Penrose, 1971). Contributor to The Hakluyt Handbook, vol. 1, edited by D.B. Quinn (1974), The Oxford Book of Military Anecdotes edited by Max Hastings (1985), Compassing the Vaste Globe of the Earth edited by R.C. Bridges and P.E.H. Hair (1996), The Purchas Handbook, vol. 1, edited by L.E. Pennington (1997), New Dictionary of National Biography (forthcoming). Also contributed to History Today, and The Mariner's Mirror. Essays: Coryate; Methwold; Roe.

Strassberg, Richard E. Professor of Chinese and Director, Interdepartmental Program in East Asian Studies, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, University of California, Los Angeles. Author of a volume of translations of classical Chinese travel writing, Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing from Imperial China (1994), and other translations from the Chinese. Essays: China.

Taddeo, Julie Anne. Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of History, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Contributor to Reader's Guide to British History edited by David Loades (forthcoming). She is working on a book about Lytton Strachey, homosexuality and the gender politics of British modernism. Essays: gender and sexuality.

Tammiksaar, Erki. Science historian and researcher of Karl Ernst von Baer, Museum of the Institute of Zoology and Botany, and Researcher, Departament of Philosophy, University of Tartu. Author of Findbuch zum Nachlass Karl Ernst von Baer (1792[-]1876) (1999), Geographical Aspects in the Scientific Research of Karl Ernst von Baer in the 1830[-]1840s (2000), Materialien zur Kenntniss des unvergänglichen Boden-Eises in Sibirien gesammelt von Karl Ernst von Baer (2001). Editor (with others) of several science-historical publications. Essays: Anjou; Russian Geographical Society.

Taylor, Robert A. Associate Professor of History, Humanities and Communications Department, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne. Author of Rebel Storehouse: Florida in the Confederate Economy (1995) and World War II in Fort Pierce (1999). Editor of A Pennsylvanian in Blue: The Civil War Diary of Thomas Beck Walton (1995). Editor (with Lewis N. Wynne) of This War So Horrible: The Civil War Diary of Hiram Smith Williams (1993), of This Cruel War: The Civil War Letters of Grant and Malinda Taylor (with Ann K. Blomquist Mercer, 2000). Also contributed to the Florida Historical Quarterly. Essays: Space Travel and Exploration.

Teale, Tamara M. Adjunct Instructor, Department of English and Foreign Languages, University of Southern Colorado, Pueblo. Contributor to Studies in Travel Writing (D. H. Lawrence in Taos, New Mexico, Journal of the Southwest ( Simone de Beauvoir's 1947 travel in the US Southwest), MELUS: Journal of the Study of Multi-Ethnic Literatures of the United States (Leslie Marmon Silko's novel Almanac of the Dead), The Tocqueville Review/La Revue Tocqueville (de Tocqueville's study of the US treaty mechanisms with native tribes and the Indian nations). Essays: Douglas; Kino; de Tocqueville.

Thompson, Carl. Junior Research Fellow, Trinity College, University of Oxford. Contributor to Journeys (on early 19th-century Arctic exploration), Post-War Literatures in English (on Redmond O'Hanlon), New Statesman (on National Geographic magazine) and Bulletin of the Association for the Study of Travel in Egypt and the Near East (on James Bruce). Essays: Dampier; Parry.

Thrower, Norman J.W. Professor Emeritus Professor (recalled), Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles. Author of Original Survey and Land Subdivision (1966), Maps and Man (1972), Maps and Civilization (1996, 2nd edition 1999). Editor (with Derek Howse) of A Buccaneer's Atlas (1992) by Basil Ringrose. Editor of The Three Voyages of Edmond Halley in the Paramore, 1682[-]1701 (1981), Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, 1577[-]1580 (1984), Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley (1990). Contributor to The Quest for Longitude, edited by William J. H. Andrewes (1996), and Terrae Incognitae, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Navigation, among numerous other articles and books. Essays: Verrazzano.

Tilby, Michael. Fellow in French, Selwyn College, Cambridge. Author of Gide: 'Les Faux-Monnayeurs' (1981) and Balzac (1995). Editor of Beyond the Nouveau Roman (1990) and of texts by Mérimée and Pascal Lainé. Contributor to Artistic Relations. Literature and the Visual Arts in Nineteenth-Century France, edited by Peter Collier and Robert Lethbridge and to various volumes of conference proceedings in English and French. Also author of articles on 19th- and 20th-century French literature in French Studies, Modern Language Review, Forum for Modern Language Studies, Australian Journal of French Studies, Essays in French Literature, L'Année balzacienne and Bulletin des Amis d'André Gide, among others. Essays: Gide; Malraux; Staël.

Tolbert, Jane T. Assistant Professor of Communication, Department of Humanities and Communication, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne. Author of articles in The Historian , Journal of Business and Technical Communication and is a contributor to Remembering Kuralt edited by Ralph Grizzle (2000). Essays: Censorship and travel writing; Le Vaillant; Manuscript Collecting.

Tolmachëva, Marina. Professor of History and Associate Dean, College of Liberal Arts, Washington State University, Pullman. Editor of The Pate Chronicle (1993). Contributor to Travel, Trade, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: an Encyclopedia edited by John Block Friedman and Kristen Mossler Figg (2000), Women in the Medieval Islamic World: Power, Patronage, and Piety edited by Gavin R.G. Hambly (1998), Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures edited by Helaine Selin (1997), Tradition, Transmission, Transformation edited by F. Jamil Ragep and Sally P. Ragep, with Steven Livesey (1996), Women and the Journey edited by Susan H. McLeod and Bonnie Frederick (1993). Also contributed journal articles to Cahiers du Monde russe, Terrae Incognitae, Swahili Forum, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Islamic Studies. Essays: Mecca and Medina; Tsybikov; Yakut.

Tredinnick, Mark. Independent writer, critic and scholar based near Sydney. Also teaches at the University of Sydney and The University of Western Sydney. Contributed essays and reviews to Resurgence, Orion, The Temenos Academy Review, The Bulletin, The Australian, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Canberra Times, The Courier-Mail, Quadrant, Island, Famous Reporter and other journals on topics including the essay, ecology, landscape, place and the literature of the wild. Essays: Matthiessen; Thesiger.

Ujma, Christina. Lecturer in German, Department of European Studies, Loughborough University. Author of Ernst Bloch's Konstruktion der Moderne aus Messianismus und Marxismus (1995). Contributor to Woman Writers in the Age of Goethe vol. 9 edited by Margaret Ives (1997), The Gruppe 47: Fifty Years On: A Reappraisal of its Literary and Political Significance edited by Stuart Parkes and John J. White (1999), Europa: ein salon? edited by Roberto Simanowski et al. (with Rotraut Fischer, 1999), The "Other" Austrians: Post-1945 Austrian Women's Writing edited by Allyson Fiddler (1998), Autobiography by Women in German edited by Mereid Puw Davies et al. (2000). Essays: Florence; Pfeiffer; Rome

Vanderjagt, Arjo. Professor of Medieval Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Groningen. Author of "Qui sa vertu anoblist". The Concepts of noblesse and chose publicque in Burgundian Political Thought (1981), Laurens Pignon, OP: Confessor of Philip the Good. Ideas on Jurisdiction and the Estates (1985), Anselmus van Canterbury. Over waarheid - De veritate (1990), Cadmus zaaide draketanden. Ideeëngeschiedenis en de vermenigvuldiging van teksten (1995), Anselmus van Canterbury. Over keuzevrijheid-De libertate arbitrii (1997). Editor (with others) of Rodolphus Agricola Phrisius 1444[-]1485 (1988), of Wessel Gansfort (1419[-]1489) and Northern Humanism (with others, 1993), of Scepticism and Irreligion in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (with others, 1993),of Northern Humanism in European Context, 1469[-]1625: From the 'Adwert Academy' to Ubbo Emmius (with others, 1999), Between Demonstration and Imagination: Essays in the History of Science and Philosophy Presented to John D. North (with others, 1999). Contributor to De Oriënt Droom of Dreiging? Het Oosten in Westers Pers pectief edited by Martin Gosman and Hans Bakker (1988), Media Latinitas: A Collection of Essays to Mark the Occasion of the Retirement of L.J. Engels edited by R.I.A. Nip et al. (1996), Illustreret filosofihistorie: qstens og Vestens filosofi i tekst og billeder edited by J. Bor, E. Petersma and J. Kingma (1997), "Cur deus homo". Atti del Congresso Anselmiano Internazionale, edited by Paul Gilbert et al. (1999), The Dragon and the Unicorn edited by D. Knechtges and E. Vance (forthcoming). Also contributed many articles to the journals Fifteenth-Century Studies, Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte ,Tijdschrift voor theoretische geschiedenis, Aevum. Rassegna di scienze storiche, linguistiche e filologiche, Madoc. Essays: Golden Fleece; Lannoy.

Verhoeven, Garrelt. Essays: Bontekoe, Willem Ysbrantsz.

Villiers, John. Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society, London. Author of Südostasien vor der Kolonialzeit (1965), East of Malacca: Three Essays on the Portuguese in the Indonesian Archipelago in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries (1985), Albuquerque: Caesar of the East: Selected Texts by Afonso de Albuquerque and His Son (with T.F. Earle, 1990), Blue Guide to Thailand (with Gavin Pattison, 1997). Editor of Southeast Asian Port and Polity: Rise and Demise (with J. Kathirithamby-Wells, 1990), southeast Asian editor of the Dictionary of Art edited by Jane Turner (1996). Translator and editor of Nicolas Gervaise, Histoire naturelle et politique du Royaume de Siam, 1688 (1989). Contributor to The First Portuguese Colonial Empire edited by Malyn Newitt (1986), Portuguese Asia: Aspects in History and Economic History edited by Roderich Ptak (1987), Studies in the Portuguese Discoveries I edited by T.F. Earle and Stephen Parkinson (1992), Portuguese Voyages to Asia and Japan in the Renaissance Period edited by Peter Milard (1994), Maritime Asia: Profit Maximisation, Ethics and Trade Structure c. 1399[-]1800 edited by Karl Sprengard and Roderich Ptak (1994). Also contributor to Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Modern Asian Studies, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Terrae Incognitae, Philippine Studies, Archipel, Revista du Cultural Macau, Itinerario, Oceanos, Journal of the Siam Society, and Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth Studies. Essays: Ca' da Mosto; Tafur.

Wærp, Henning Howlid. Associate Professor, Department of Nordic Languages and Literature, University of Tromsø. Author of Diktet natur. Natur og landskap hos Andreas Munch. Vilhelm Krag og Hans Børli (1997), Innenfor og utenfor: eksistensielle problemstillinger i Sigbjørn Hølmebakks forfatterskap (1990). Editor of Hamsun I Tromsø II. Rapport for den 2. Internasjonale Hamsun-konferanse 1999 (1999) and Prosadiktet I Norge (2002). Contributor to Lenkede fugler som evig letter. Om Paal Brekkes forfatterskap edited by Ole Karlsen (2001), Nye tilbakeblikk. Artikler om litteraturhistoriske hovedbegreper edited by Alvhild Dvergsdal (1998), Herr Petter 350 år. Et festskrift fra Universitetet i Tromsø edited by Sigmund Nesset (1997), Litterære skygger. Norsk fantastisk litteratur edited by Torgeir Haugen (1998), and Naturhistorier. Naturoppfatning, menneskesyn og poetikk i skandinavisk litteratur edited by Ivar Lærkesen (1999). Contributor to the journals Norsk Litterær Årbok, Edda, Norsk litteraturvitenskapelig tidsskrift, Tijdschrift voor Skandinavistiek, Laboratoria di Geografia e Letteratur, Scandinavian-Canadian Studies. Essays: Hamsun.

Wagstaff, Malcolm. Emeritus Professor and Visiting Professor, Department of Geography, University of Southampton. Author of The Development of Rural Settlements: A Study of the Helos Plain in Southern Greece (1982), The Evolution of Middle Eastern Landscapes: An Outline to AD 1840 (1985), The Role of the Government in the Industrialisation of Turkey, 1830[-]1980 (1989), The Middle East: A Geographical Study (with others, 2nd edition 1988). Editor of Travellers in the Levant (with Sarah Searight, 2001), Landscape and Culture: Georgraphical and Archaeological Perspectives (1987), Aspects of Religion in Secular Turkey (1990), An Island Polity: The Archaeology of Exploitation in Melos (with Colin Renfrew, 1982). Contributor to Historical Geography of the Balkans edited by F.W. Carter (1977), Explorations in Doughty's Arabia Deserta edited by Stephen E. Tabachnickh (1987), Philolakon: Lakonian Studies in Honour of Hector Catling edited by J.M. Sanders (1992), Mani: Temoignages sur l'Espace et la Societe (1996), Greek Civilization: An Introduction edited by Brian A. Sparkes (1998). Also contributor to the journals Anatolian Studies, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Erdkunde, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Essays: Burckhardt; Chelebi.

Walker, John. Professor Emeritus, Spanish and Latin American Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. Author of Metaphysics and Aesthetics in the Work of Eduardo Barrios (1983), R. B. Cunninghame Graham: An Annotated Bibliography (1978), Cunninghame Graham and Scotland: An Annotated Bibliography (1980), Temas Criollos de R.B. Cunninghame Graham (1984), A Critical Guide to La Vorágine (1988). Editor of The South American Sketches of R.B.Cunninghame Graham (1978), The Scottish Sketches of R.B.Cunninghame Graham (1982), The North American Sketches of R.B.Cunninghame Graham (1986). Contributor to Liturgy and Literature edited by John Wortley (1979), Repression and Liberation in Latin America edited by Jorge Nef (1981), Eduardo Mallea ante la crítica edited by Myron Lichtblau (1985), The Land that England Lost: Argentina and Britain, a Special Relationship edited by A. Hennessy and J. King (1992), and Discovering Scottish Writers edited by Alan Reid (1997). Numerous contributions to many journals including Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, Latin American Literary Review, Portuguese Studies, Romantic Review, Notes and Queries and Studies in Scottish Literature. Essays: Argentina; Chile; Díaz del Castillo; Paraguay; Uruguay.

Walker, Ronald G. Professor of English, Department of English and Journalism, Western Illinois University, Macomb. Author of Infernal Paradise: Mexico and the Modern English Novel (1978). Editor of The Plumed Serpent by D.H. Lawrence (1983). Editor (with June M. Frazer) of The Cunning Craft: Original Essays on Detective Fiction and Contemporary Literary Theory (1990). Contributor to A Darkness that Murmured: Essays on Malcolm Lowry and the Twentieth Century edited by Frederick Asals and Paul Tiessen (2000), Graham Greene: An Annual Review edited by Peter Wolfe (1992), Apparently Incongruous Parts: The Worlds of Malcolm Lowry edited by Paul Tiessen (1990), Latin America and the Literature of Exile edited by Hans-Bernhard Moeller (1983), Makers of Modern Culture edited by Justin Wintle (1981). Also contributed journal articles to Southern Humanities Review, Language and Style, Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Essays in Literature, Malcolm Lowry Review, Papers of the Illinois Philological Association, Eureka Studies in Teaching Short Fiction. Essays: Lawrence, D.H.

Wall, Geoffrey. Literary biographer and travel writer who also teaches French at the University of York. Translator of Gustave Flaubert's Dictionary of Received Ideas (1994), Madame Bovary (1992) and Selected Letters (1997). Author of Flaubert: A Life (2001). Essays: Flaubert.

Wannell, Bruce. Independent scholar, linguist and traveller based in York. Essays: Afghanistan; Iran/Persia; Pakistan.

Ward, Helen. Library Administrator, Lindley Library, Royal Horticultural Society, London. Contributor to Reader's Guide to the History of Science (2000). Essays: Fortune; Hooker.

Ward, Simon. Lecturer, Department of German, University of Aberdeen. Author of a book on Wolfgang Koeppen. Contributor to German Life and Letters and Modern Language Review. Essays: Goethe; trains.

Warkentin, Germaine. Professor Emeritus of English, University of Toronto, Ontario. Author of articles in the books Reading Beyond Words: Contexts for Native History edited by Jennifer S. H. Brown and Elizabeth Vibert (1996), Papers of the Bibliographical Society of Canada / Cahiers de la Société bibliographique du Canada (1999), Book History II (1999) and journal articles in Queen's Quarterly, Archivaria. Editor of Canadian Exploration Literature: An Anthology (1993), Critical Issues in Editing Exploration Texts (1995), Sara Jeannette Duncan, Set in Authority[-]1906; critical edition (1996). Editor (with Carolyn Podruchny) of Decentring the Renaissance: Canada and Europe in Multi-Disciplinary Perspective 1500[-]1700 (2001). Essays: Radisson and Médard Chouart.

Weeks, Hilary. Visiting Lecturer and postgraduate research student at the University of Gloucestershire. She has published recently on Charlotte M. Yonge and is currently working on interart analogies in 19th-century literature. Essays: Borrow; Hope.

Weerakkody, D.P.M. Associate Professor, Department of Classical Languages, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Author of Taprobanê: Ancient Sri Lanka as known to Greeks and Romans (1997). Editor (with Osmund Bopearachchi) of Origin, Evolution and Circulation of Foreign Coins in the Indian Ocean (1998). Contributor to Silver Jubilee Commemoration Volume of the University of Kelaniya (1986), K.W.Goonewardena Felicitation Volume (1987), Commemoration Volume of the Classical Association of Ceylon Golden Jubilee 1935[-]1985 (1989), Rays and Ways of Indian Culture, in honour of Pandit H.M. Malaviya, edited by D.P. Dubey (1996), Sri Lanka and the Silk Road of the Sea, edited by Senaka Bandaranayake et al. (1990).Contributor to the journals The Sri Lanka Journal of the Humanities: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Kalyani, Nava Samskrti Cultural Quarterly, Aquinas Journal. Essays: Fa-Hsien; Sri Lanka.

Wein, Elizabeth. Independent scholar and writer based in Perth, Scotland. Author of The Winter Prince (1993) and contributor to Folklore and Literature: An Encyclopedia edited by Bruce Rosenberg and Mary Ellen Brown (1998), Sirens and Other Daemon Lovers edited by Ellen Datlow and Terri Windling (1998), The Horns of Efland edited by Ellen Kushner et al. (1997), L. Ron Hubbard presents Writers of the Future, vol. 9 edited by Dave Wolverton (1993). Contributor to The Lion and the Unicorn, Children's Folklore Review, The Impromtu Journal and Journal of American Folklore. Essays: Aeroplane; Wales.

Weir, Kimberly J. Graduate student, California State University and travel writer, member of Society of American Travel Writers. Author of Southern California Handbook ( 2001) Northern California Handbook (2000), San Francisco Handbook (2000), California Handbook (2000), Coastal California (2000), Los Angeles Handbook (1999). Essays: United States: Wild West.

White, Craig. Associate Professor of Literature, University of Houston, Clear Lake. He has published several articles on Henry James. Essays: Cherry-Garrard; James.

White, Richard. Senior Lecturer, Department of History, University of Sydney. Author of Inventing Australia: Images and Identity, 1688[-]1980 (1981) and The Role of Water in the Development of New South Wales (1984). Editor of Pastiche 1: Reflections on Nineteenth Century Australia (with Penny Russell, 1994) Memories and Dreams: Reflections on Twentieth-Century Australia: Pastiche 2 (with Penny Russell, 1997), The Oxford Book of Australian Travel Writing (with Ros Pesman and David Walker, 1996) and Annotated Bibliography of Australian Overseas Travel Writing 1830 to 1970 (1996). Contributed to The Australian Dream, edited by Judith O'Callaghan (1993) and Creating Australia: Changing Australian History edited by Wayne Hudson and Geoffrey Bolton (1997). Contributor to numerous journals including Australian Cultural History, Australian Historical Studies, Australian Studies (Australia), Australian Studies (UK), Biblioteca del Viaggio in Italia: Studi, Island Magazine, Journal of the Australian War Memorial, Meanjin, Teaching History, Theory Culture & Society, Transition, and War & Society. Essays: Forrest.

Whitehead, Neil L. Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Author of Lords of the Tiger Spirit. A History of the Caribs in Colonial Venezuela and Guyana, 1498[-]820 (1988). Editor of The Discoverie of the Large, Rich and Bewtiful Empire of Guiana by Sir Walter Ralegh (1997). Editor (with Laura Rival) of Beyond the Visible and the Material (2001),, War in the Tribal Zone: Expanding States and Indigenous Warfare (with R.Brian Ferguson, 1992), Wolves from the Sea: Readings in the Anthropology of the Native Caribbean (1995), Wild Majesty: Encounters with Caribs from Columbus to the Present Day. An Anthology (with Peter Hulme, 1992). Contributor to A General History of the Caribbean, vol. 3: The Slave Societies of the Caribbean edited by Franklin W. Knight (1999), two chapters in The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, vol. 3; South America, edited by Frank Salomon and Stuart B. Schwartz (1999), The History of Cartography, II (3) edited by D. Woodward and G.M. Lewis (1998), Chiefdoms and Chieftaincy in the Americas, edited by Elsa M. Redmond (1998). Editor of the journal Ethnohistory and articles in Studies in Travel Writing, Journal of Archaeological Research, Current Anthropology, L'Homme …. Essays: Bry; Staden.

Wiesehöfer, Josef. Chair of Ancient History, University of Kiel, and Director of the Institut für Klassische Altertumskunde. Author of Der Aufstand Gaumåtas und die Anfänge Dareios' I. (1978). Author of Friedrich Münzer: ein Althistoriker zwischen Kaiserreich und Nationalsozialismus (with Alfred Kneppe, 1983), Die dunklen Jahrhunderte der Persis (1994), Ancient Persia: From 550BC to 650AD (1996, in German 1994), Das Reich der Achaimeniden. Eine Bibliographie (with Ursula Weber 1996), Das frühe Persien (1999). Editor of Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse - The Arsacid Empire: Sources and Documentation (1998). Essays: Niebuhr; Olearius; Silk Route.

Wildeman, Diederick Curator of rare books and manuscripts, Netherlands Maritime Museum, Amsterdam. Author (with Vibeke Roeper) of Ontdekkingsreizen van Nederlanders. 1590[-]1650 [Dutch Voyages of Discovery 1590[-]1650] (1993), Om de Noord. De tochten van Willem Barentsz. en Jacob van Heemskerck en de overwintering op Nova Zembla. [Northbound. The Voyage of Willem Barentsz and Jacob van Heemskerck and the Wintering on Novaya Zembla] (1996), Reizen op Papier. Journalen en reisverslagen van Nederlandse ontdekkingsreizigers, kooplieden en avonturiers [Voyages and Travels on Paper. Journals and Travel Accounts of Dutch Discovers, Merchants and Adventurers] (1996), Om de Zuid. De Eerste Schipvaart naar de Oost zoals opgetekend door Willem Lodewycksz. [Southbound. The First Voyage to the East, as described by Willem Lodewycksz] (1997). Contributor to Souffrir pour Parvenir. De wereld van Jan Huygen van Linschoten (1998). Essays: (with Vibeke Roeper) East India Company (Dutch); Linschoten-Vereeniging; Lodewycksz; Veer.

Woodcox, D.C. Associate Professor of English, Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri. Editor of Through Dorothea's Window: Essays from the George Eliot Conference (1991). Contributor to British Travel Writers, 1837[-]1875 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 166) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1996), The Encyclopedia of Romanticism: Culture in Britain, 1780s[-]1830s edited by Laura Dabundo (1992). Essays: Beckford; Paris.

Workman, Nancy V. Professor, Department of English, Lewis University, Romeoville, Illinois. Contributor to British Travel Writers 1876[-]1909 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 174) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1997), The 1890s: An Encyclopedia of British Literature, Art, and Culture edited by G.A. Cevasco (1993), and also to Studies in Canadian Literature, Essays in Literature, and Journal of Popular Culture. Essays: East India Company: British.

Zengos, Hariclea. Associate Professor, Department of English, American College of Greece, Athens. Contributor to British Travel Writers 1940[-]1997 (Dictionary of Literary Biography 204) edited by Barbara Brothers and Julia M. Gergits (1990) and to Antipodes (ethnicity and assimilation in Greek-Australian short story). Essays: Blixen; Durrell.

Zhiri, Oumelbanine. Professor, University of California, San Diego, Literature Department. Author of L'Afrique au Miroir de l'Europe, Fortunes de Jean Léon l'Africain à la Renaissance (1991), Les Sillages de Jean Léon l'Africain, du XVI° au XX° siècle (1995), L'Extase et ses Paradoxes, Essai sur la structure narrative du Tiers Livre (1999). Contributor to Le Voyage des Théories, edited by Ali Benmakhlouf (2000), The Politics of Translation in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, edited by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski, Luise von Flotow and Daniel Russell (2001), Travel Knowledge, European Discoveries in the Early Modern Period, edited by Ivo Kamps and Jyotsna D. Singh (2001). Essays: Leo Africanas.


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