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Chapter Summary

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Chapter 1 Summary

  • Genotype and phenotype influence our ability in sport and exercise and our health.
  • The human genome has now been mapped, and is being used in scientific research to understand human physiology.
  • A human gene map for physical performance and health-related fitness is developing.
  • The basic unit of structure and function for the body is the cell, and the cell has highly specialized organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria.
  • The four most common chemical elements in living systems are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, and atoms have a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, with electrons circulating.
  • Molecules such as sugars, fatty acids and amino acids are the building blocks of the macromolecules – nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids – that have numerous roles in the body.
  • Enzymes catalyse specific chemical reactions such as the action of lactate dehydrogenase on pyruvate, and control the rate of metabolism.
  • ATP is the universal energy currency of the cell and its continuous high rate of production is imperative for skeletal muscle energetics.
  • There are a number of scientific approaches that contribute to our knowledge of the body, however, our interest is primarily in the whole, intact functioning human body