Routledge

REVISION QUESTIONS

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Revision questions for pages 1–44

  1. What are the goal and the subject of the book? How is it organised? Which approach do the authors take? (1–)
  2. Into which constituent parts do the authors divide new media? And which fields of technologically mediated production do the authors identify? (12–13)
  3. What does the transition of analogue to digital mean? And what does this transition mean for producers, audiences and theorists of new media? (16–19)
  4. What are the ideological dimensions of interactivity? At the instrumental level, into which parts can interactivity be broken down? (21–23)
  5. Describe the different lines of development of the concept hypertext. (26–29)
  6. How have the consumption, distribution and production of media texts changed with the arrival of the new media? (21–35)
  7. In what ways is the term virtual used in relation to new media? (35–36)
  8. How do Lister at al. Use the term simulation? In which three ways is the term used in the analysis of new media?

Revision questions for pages 44–104

  1. So far, what are the most important responses that have been given to the question of what exactly is new about new media? (46–48)
  2. What is teleological history and what shape does this take in the study of new media? What is problematic about this type of historical account? How can the history of new media be described in a different way? (52–59)
  3. In which way does the modernistic concept of progress influence the study of new media? In what way is this influence problematic? (60–62)
  4. To what does the concept of the technological imaginary draw our attention? How does the technological imaginary work in the case of new media? (66–68)
  5. According to Kevin Robins, Carolyn Marvin, William Boddy and Patrice Flinchy, how does the discursive construction of new media take place? To what kinds of diverse interpretation of the technological imaginary does this lead? (68–73)
  6. In what way have the media been criticised since the 1920s? In what way do advocates of new media build on this criticism? (74–76)
  7. How do the views of McLuhan and Williams differ from each other? Which influences have their ideas had on media studies over the years? (77–80)
  8. Which four media cultures does McLuhan distinguish? What are the most important characteristics of these cultures? (80–82)
  9. What do the concepts ‘remediation’, ‘extending the sensorium’ and ‘the medium is the message entail exactly? Why are these ideas of importance according to Lister et al.? How do these concepts differ of Williams’ view of media? (82–89)
  10. Which three crucial theses come forth from the ideas of McLuhan? How are these theses linked with the ideas of other theorists? (89–94)

Revision questions for pages 105–157

  1. Describe how Lister et al. use the concepts ‘virtual reality’, ‘virtual’, ‘simulation’ and ‘representation’ to discuss the changes that have taken place in our visual culture. Try to summarise the most important steps in the authors’ argumentation, indicating specific pages in the text. (105–124 up to 2.5)
    • Step 1: Which stages can be distinguished in the development of immersive virtual? Explain using Brian Winston's theory. (105–109)
    • Step 2: Why is the ‘virtual’ an important characteristic of contemporary visual culture? (109–110)
    • Step 3: How does our understanding of Virtual Reality contribute to our thinking about visual perception, according to Lister et al.? (110–111)
    • Step 4: What is the historical development of Virtual Reality? How do the authors reflect on the concept of simulation in describing this?
    • Step 5: How does Sutherland place his HMD within the tradition of pictorial representation? According to the authors, how was the newness of Virtual Reality emphasised? (114–115)
    • Step 6: How did ‘perspective’ develop historically according to Lister et al.? How is Alberti's window related to the development of VR? (115–123)
    • Step 7: Which historical framework do Lister et al. provide for their argumentation about the development of VR? (123–124)
  2. Describe how the authors analyse the use of CGI (computer-generated imagery) in contemporary films. Again try to summarise the most important steps in their argument, indicating specific pages in the text (132–157)
    • Step 1: With the use of which four analytical concepts can CGI be investigated according to Lister et al.? (136–139)
    • Step 2: Which factors, apart from technological ones, play a part in these concepts? (139–141)
    • Step 3: Describe the overlapping discourses that the authors discuss in relation to spectacular realism. (142–145)
    • Step 4: Which claim do the authors make concerning the development of CGI, based on the history of earlier cinematographic techniques? (145–149)
    • Step 5: How do Lister et al. criticise claims that digital cinema is superficial?

Revision questions for pages 163–236

  1. How has the argument in this chapter been built up? In answering this question, indicate clearly how the different paragraphs are related to each other. Which function does each paragraph in the argument fulfil? (Use a diagram if you wish).
    • Paragraph 3.4 Which interests play a part in the development of the internet? How is its development influenced by these interests? Which perspective is used here?
    • Paragraph 3.4-3.7 From which perspective is the development of the internet looked at and how? (3.5) Give examples. (3.6) What does ‘social shaping’ entail? Which example do the authors use to illustrate where the limits of the commercial influence on the development of the internet are? (3.7)
    • Paragraph 3.8 What is the relation between new information technologies and new economical structures? Use the terms globalisation and neoliberalism in your answer.
    • Paragraph 3.9 What reservations do the authors have concerning this account of the relationship between the development of new communication technology and globalisation?
    • Paragraph 3.10 Which explanation do Lister et al. give for the spectacular growth and (temporary) downturn of the information-economy?
    • Paragraph 3.11-3.12 How have the new media fundamentally changed the issues surrounding copyright? (3.11) Explain using the music industry as an example. (3.12)
    • Paragraph 3.13-3.14 How does the theory of the Long Tail offer new insights in the way in which new media not only lead to adaptations of existing economical activities, but also inspire new activities? (3.13) How can the concept of the virus help us understand this theory? (3.14)
    • Paragraph 3.15 How do fragmentation and convergence relate to each other in the new media landscape?
    • Paragraph 3.18-3.19 In what way does online anonymity play a part in online activities? (3.18) Discuss current academic thought on the relation between online communication and the idea of the ‘community’ (3.19)
    • Paragraph 3.21-3.22 In what way has the internet given new life to the public sphere? In answering this question discuss the pluralistic vision, Web 2.0 and the theories of Kellner and Poster. (3.21) What impact does online participation have on the contemporary media landscape? Also discuss the theory of Henry Jenkins. (3.22)
    • Paragraph 3.23 Discuss the growth of YouTube and how this can be seen as a characteristic development of networked new media.
  2. What are according to you the five most important or most interesting statements or theories that you’ve found in this chapter? Write down in your own words what these theories entail and also discuss in about ten lines why they are so important. Refer to specific page numbers and note down the names of the most important authors connected to the arguments you’ve selected.

Revision questions for pages 237–316

  1. Determine what you think are the five most important or most interesting statements or theories that in this chapter? Then formulate for each of those theories a possible exam question together with a model answer.
  2. Discuss the exam questions and their model answers with a group of your fellow students. Select the five best questions and answers and explain as a group why these questions cover the argumentation of the chapter well.

Revision questions for pages 317–381

  1. Reconstruct in about 1000 words the argument in this chapter (up to page 381) Refer to specific page numbers and note the names of the most important authors who play a part in this argument.
  2. After that, discuss and formulate with the same group of students from the previous task, how this chapter provides an insight in the fundamental question of the book as a whole. Indicate what insight this chapter provides exactly and what the fundamental question of the book is.