Additional References/Resources

Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health

The Information & Knowledge for Optimal Health (INFO) Project at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD presents Abstracts online of 30 research articles (many peer-reviewed) and most published between 2008 and 2009 in journals such as Trauma, Violence and Abuse, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, The Lancet, and International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Countries
Represented range across the globe.

SANE Web Resources

Medical Examination and Treatment for Victims of Sexual Assault (2008)

A comprehensive bibliography of articles from Medical & Nursing Journals on Sexual Assault Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment

SANEs as Key Responders in a Coordinated Response

Many communities have created multidisciplinary bodies, such as sexual assault response teams (SARTs), to oversee coordination and collaboration related to immediate response to sexual assault cases, ensure a victim-centered approach to service delivery, and explore ways to prevent future victimization. In localities where SANE programs exist, SANEs must be integral in these community coordination efforts to facilitate comprehensive and effective response.

Stop Violence Against Women: A project by The Advocates for Human Rights

The medical community can play an important role in a coordinated response to sexual assault. In addition to participating in SANE/SART programs, health care providers can take a number of steps to more effectively respond to the needs of victims. Staff should be provided with ongoing and consistent training on sexual assault and violence against women.

National Online Resource Centre on Violence Against Women – Article:
The Effectiveness of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs
By Rebecca Campbell, with contributions from Renae Diegel

This paper presents a brief summary of the structure and functions of SANE programs as they currently exist in the United States, and reviews the empirical research literature on the effectiveness of SANE programs in three domains. Because traditional medical care often leaves survivors feeling "re-raped" SANE programs have sought to provide care in an empowering setting that addresses survivors' emotional and medical needs. As such, this paper reviews the evidence on how SANE programs may help survivors' psychological recovery from the rape.

WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women (2009).

The Summary Report of this study is available online in English, Français, and Español:

The report presents initial results based on interviews with 24,000 women by carefully trained interviewers. It was implemented in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), PATH, USA, research institutions and women's organizations in the participating countries. The report covers 15 sites and 10 countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Peru, Namibia, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Thailand, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Its six chapters include: 1: Overview. 2. Violence against women by intimate partners. 3. Violence against women by non-partners. 4. Partner violence and women's health. 5. Coping and responding to intimate-partner violence. 6. Recommendations.

Other Resources

Medical Care Training Manuals
for Sexual Assault, Rape and Domestic Violence

A variety of tools for training health care professionals in working with sexual assault survivors.

Adamowski, K. (1989). Family violence training project: Final report. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Health. Describes a one-year staff development program for physicians and nurses in the Emergency Department of Ottawa General Hospital – a first of its kind in Canada, elements of which have been widely replicated.

By: John Kasprak, Senior Attorney

As best as we can determine, no federal law mandates the training of health care providers in domestic and sexual abuse. But the recently passed federal Violence Against Women Act in U.S. provides grants to help train health care providers and students in health professional schools to identify victims of domestic and sexual abuse, ensure their immediate safety, document their injuries, and refer them to appropriate services. The act also promotes public health programs that integrate domestic and sexual violence assessment and intervention into basic care as well as encourage cooperation between health care providers, public health programs, and domestic and sexual violence programs.

Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Assault: A Guide to Training Materials and Programs for Health Care Providers (2002)

This guide offers detailed descriptions of 36 sets of training materials designed to educate health care providers about methods of screening and intervening in cases of domestic violence and sexual assault. Materials included in the guide are predominantly practical tools – videos, scripted slide lectures, training manuals, and information packets – that were obtained from medical and nursing schools, emergency departments, national resource centers and other agencies throughout the U.S. and Canada. Materials have been pre-screened for relevance and usefulness.

Comprehensive Mental Health Assessment tool– CMHA.

As introduced in Chapter 13, this 21-item clinical assessment tool was developed in the 1970s in a County Mental Health System in Buffalo, NY. A key feature is its incorporation of risk-to-life and other items signifying emotional crisis with other standard facets of mental health assessment. The particular relevance of the CMHA to screening for victimization and life-threatening behavior in clinical and workplace settings is highlighted in Chapters 4, 11, and 13 with illustrations of four excerpts from the CMHA in practice situations: triage, victimization, violence, suicide. For a fuller description of the development, philosophy, and use of this assessment tool, readers are referred to Hoff, et al. (2009). People in crisis: Clinical and diversity perspectives, 6th Edition. New York: Routledge – Chapters 3, and 9 through 12: Academics and Researchers interested in further evaluations of this tool are referred to Crisis Research in the People in Crisis website, or contact:

Women's College Research Institute: Violence and Health Research Program

Researchers at the Violence and Health Research Program focus on a number of specific theme areas:

  • Psychological Trauma and Mental Health,
  • Physical Illness and Injury,
  • Institutional Responses and Professional Practices ,
  • Cross-cultural Issues,
  • Measurement,
  • Knowledge Transfer .

Violence Prevention: Resources on the Health Effects of Violence and Sexual Assault (2003)
by the Canadian Health Network and the Kitchener Public Library

This guide has been created to help you find information on violence prevention issues available in the library and on the Canadian Health Network (CHN) web site.

A Handbook for Health and Social Service Providers and Educators on Children Exposed to Woman Abuse/Family Violence

This handbook was created for health and social service providers and for educators in communities across Canada. Front-line service providers, supervisors and leaders in social service agencies and health care and educational organizations are our intended audience. Those responsible for professional development in service organizations and for professional training of students are encouraged to make use of this information as a training resource.

(SA disability – Not SANE)

Promising Practice Programs: Sexual Assault in Disability and Aged Care Action Strategy Project (SADA project) (2006)

This article elaborates the program to effectively prevent and respond to sexual assault of vulnerable women in disability and aged care residential settings. The Sexual Assault in Disability and Aged Care Action Strategy (SADA Action Strategy) was initiated in 2005 by the Northern Sydney Sexual Assault Service.

Family Violence Prevention Fund (FVPF)

FVPF works to end domestic violence and assists women and children whose lives are devastated by abuse. FVPF educates judges to protect all victims of abuse, helps health care providers and employers to identify and aid victims of abuse, and shows how to join the effort to end domestic violence through awareness tools, community organizing tips, and safety resources. Contact:

Human Trafficking: Prevention, Detection, Services to Victims

In Boston, the Massachusetts Task Force to Combat Human Trafficking offer a Resource Guide & Partner Agencies manual, including non-governmental organizations such as the International Institute of Boston, rape crisis services, federal, state and local government offices, and federal, state, and local law enforcement and criminal justice agencies. The Guide is available at: Family Justice Center, 989 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, 617-343-5125 (phone), or by request to Task Force director, Karen McLaughlin at: A succinct Fact Sheet, “How Can I Recognize Trafficking Victims?” is available at the U.S. Department of State: Diplomacy in Action, Washington, D.C. The topics addressing this increasing global crime across nations and continents include:

  • Sex trafficking (e.g. massage parlors, adult bookstores, bars/strip clubs)
  • Labor trafficking (e.g. sweatshops, maids & nannies, restaurant & custodial work)
  • How Do People Get Trapped Into Sex or Labor Trafficking?
  • Visible Indicators (e.g. heavy security at commercial sites, isolated location, victims kept under surveillance when taken to a doctor or clinic)
  • Profile of A Trafficking Victim (typically reluctant to volunteer information, fearing retaliation, sense no viable option to escape)
  • Health Characteristics of a Trafficked Person (e.g. malnutrition, STD, signs of rape, post-traumatic stress, critical untreated illnesses)
  • Signs That a Person is Being Held As a Slave (e.g. no travel documents, trafficker or pimp controls all money, extremely nervous)
  • Trafficking Screening Questions (build on any of above indicators, plus how a suspected victim arrived if a foreign national)
  • How To Report a Suspected Trafficking Case (in the US and abroad: Attorney General's office; FBI; local police; national hotlines; embassy if victim is foreign)
  • Road to Recovery (lists all services described in Chapter 9)

This 5-page document is available at:

Roxbury Youthworks: This is a community-based organization focused on recognizing and stopping Human Trafficking of young people on the streets of Boston. The phenomena described here are common in many other cities, large and small. Training and other information is available from Executive Director, Mia Alvarado, LICSW at:

The Men's Bibliography (2008): A comprehensive work of writing on men, masculinities, gender, and sexualities (19th Edition), compiled by Michael Flood, Australia, and available free online. See “Offender Program Resources” for further description of this resource available at:

Resources for Indigenous Populations in USA

Bureau of Indian Affairs:

Indian Health Service:

Suicide Prevention and Crisis Information – Healing of Nations:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Book Information / Buy the book