Routledge

David Crystal's Introduction to Language

Index

The first figure in an index reference identifies the lecture number, followed by the location in minutes and seconds. For example, 2:20:40 will be found 20 minutes and 40 seconds into Lecture 2. References mark the beginning of a topic.

A

  • abbreviations 2:20:40
  • aboriginal languages 5:09:18
  • accent as identity 5:01:20
  • accent attitudes 5:05:44
  • accent convergence 5:03:40
  • accent divergence 5:03:42
  • accent judgments 5:02:45
  • accent popularity 5:06:52
  • accent rating 5:06:42
  • accommodation 5:03:30
  • active vocabulary 2:06:50
  • ‘actually’ example 2:27:41
  • adverb connectivity 3:25:48
  • advertising on the Internet 6:28:24
  • aesthetic factors 6:09:14
  • agent omission 1:25:18
  • alliteration in exams 1:19:14
  • ‘and’ learning 2:24:56
  • ‘and’ overuse 3:24:47
  • animal communication 1:03:54
  • animal ‘language’ 1:08:48
  • anonymity 6:18:50
  • antonyms 2:08:12
  • applied linguistic use of the diagram 6:27:44
  • applied linguistics and personal variation 5:18:37
  • appropriateness 6:12:47
  • attitudes to accents 5:05:44
  • audience awareness 6:07:01
  • auditory-vocal communication 1:13:12
  • Australian languages 5:09:18
  • authorship on the Internet 6:19:53
  • avoidance languages 5:10:07

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B

  • babbling 4:08:07
  • baby hearing 4:03:26
  • babytalk 4:11:40
  • bending and breaking rules 5:21:42
  • bilingualism 5:11:56
  • Birthday Party, The 5:27:12
  • blends 2:20:48
  • blogging 6:15:54
  • bodily gestures 1:06:08
  • body language 1:05:37
  • bones of the middle ear 4:03:37
  • broadcasting discourses 6:15:11
  • ‘broken window’ example of passive 1:26:08

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C

  • capital letters 3:19:27
  • Carroll, Lewis 6:29:49
  • ‘catfrontation’ example 5:22:51
  • Caunes, Antoine de 3:15:00
  • cautionary agenda for ‘How old are you?’ 1:21:22
  • change in language today 4:29:23
  • change to be stopped 4:28:46
  • characters in a writing system 3:18:48
  • Charlip, Remy 3:27:03
  • chatrooms 6:18:45
  • Chaucer, Geoffrey 4:26:04
  • child language acquisition 4:01:22
  • child multilingualism 5:12:44
  • choices in language 1:18:30
  • Chomsky, Noam 5:12:58
  • Churchill the dog 5:07:51
  • class in society 5:08:45
  • ‘coffin-likability’ 1:10:52
  • cognition 4:02:03
  • coherence 2:10:29
  • colour 3:19:58
  • ‘come here’ gestures 0:07:05
  • comment clauses 6:02:59
  • communication in relation to language 1:02:38
  • comparative discourse linguistics 6:26:13
  • compound words 2:20:57
  • comprehension in child learning 4:09:07
  • concert review use of ‘language’ 1:08:58
  • connectivity in early writing 3:25:09
  • connectivity in language acquisition 2:27:24
  • Connery, Sean 3:05:54
  • consonants 3:04:50
  • context used to distinguish senses 2:15:03
  • conversation analysis 6:02:55
  • conversation learning by children 4:09:32
  • cooing 4:07:58
  • correctness attitudes 6:10:30
  • creativity on the Internet 6:22:07
  • creoles 5:01:28
  • crossword puzzles 5:24:45
  • crying 4:07:45
  • Cummings, E E 5:21:26

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D

  • dance 1:07:43
  • developmental linguistics 4:01:54
  • developmental psycholinguistics 4:01:58
  • dialectology 5:01:15
  • dialogue 6:00:46
  • dictionaries of semiotic behaviour 1:11:47
  • dictionary at the side of a bed 1:01:13
  • discourse as a subject 6:00:17
  • discourse linguistics 6:01:11
  • discourse on the Internet 6:18:37
  • distance between people 1:08:15
  • duality of structure 1:12:24

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E

  • ear wiggling 1:06:30
  • educational perspective 3:21:12
  • educative factors 6:09:55
  • Edwards, Huw 5:06:29
  • effects of using language 1:18:39
  • electronic communication as a mode of transmission 3:28:44
  • email style 6:08:05
  • endangered languages 5:10:52
  • Eurotrash 3:15:01
  • evolution 4:04:10
  • exam questions 1:19:06
  • explanatory perspective in pragmatics 1:18:51

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F

  • facial expressions 1:06:07
  • false friends 4:23:43
  • feedback in electronic communication 3:29:04
  • feeding routines 4:9:59
  • first words 4:02:48
  • five senses 1:03:20
  • fonts 6:09:35
  • football results example 3:13:20
  • forensic linguistics 5:18:50
  • Fortunately 3:26:54
  • four-year-old birthday party 1:22:13
  • French accent 3:14:47
  • French irregular verbs 1:23:06
  • Fry, Stephen 6:17:08

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G

  • ‘gendarmes’ story 1:23:30
  • gender 5:08:54
  • general phonetics 3:03:33
  • gesture 1:06:08
  • ‘go’ , forms of 2:02:44
  • ‘good morning, Jones’ examples 1:28:35
  • gradable antonyms 2:09:34
  • grammar acquisition by children 2:23:32
  • grammar change 4:25:01
  • grammar distinguished from semantics 2:13:47
  • grammar in early reading 3:23:00
  • grammar making sense of words 2:16:16
  • graphetics 3:17:16
  • graphology 3:18:22
  • graphology change over time 4:25:47
  • Graves, Robert 5:21:37

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H

  • headwords in dictionaries 2:03:40
  • hearing in the womb 4:03:26
  • ‘hello’ on the phone 6:15:01
  • heterogeneous discourse 6:20:46
  • historical linguistics 4:17:50
  • ‘house painted’ example of passive 1:26:30
  • ‘how old are you?’ 1:20:40
  • humour across languages 6:26:25
  • Humpty Dumpty 6:29:52
  • hypertext links 3:29:56

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I

  • iambic pentameter 3:14:24
  • ideational definition of language 1:02:04
  • ideational language in talking to children 4:11:14
  • illiteracy 3:20:42
  • Indian dance 1:11:56
  • infant speech perception experiments 4:05:36
  • instant messaging 6:16:01
  • intentions behind a use of language 1:18:34
  • international accents 5:01:50
  • Internet as a mode of transmission 3:30:00
  • Internet discourses 6:15:24
  • Internet in the future 6:18:14
  • Internet linguistics 6:24:16
  • intonation heard in the womb 4:05:23
  • intonation in babies 4:08:20
  • intonation in babytalk 4:13:27
  • intonation in early child language 3:12:14
  • intonation in phonology 3:06:27
  • iPad reading 6:23:10
  • irregular forms 2:26:40
  • it ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it 3:07:50
  • it ain't what you write, it's the way you present it 3:20:28

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J

  • Johnson, Samuel 4:28:56
  • Joyce, James 5:21:27

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K

  • kinesics 1:05:10
  • King James Bible 4:25:14
  • kinship 5:09:00

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L

  • LAD 5:13:00
  • language acquisition beginning 4:02:36
  • language acquisition device 5:13:00
  • language as identity 5:01:30
  • language change 4:18:06
  • language death 5:10:59
  • language definitions 1:01:57
  • language play as a source of variation 5:22:26
  • language play in the first year 4:11:00
  • ‘language’ used metaphorically 1:08:30
  • layout 3:19:55
  • letters 3:19:20
  • lexemes 2:02:25
  • lexical items 2:02:25
  • linguistics defined 1:00:43
  • lip-rounding to animals 4:13:05
  • lip-rounding to babies 4:12:50
  • lip-rounding to intimates 4:13:09
  • literacy 3:20:42
  • literary style 5:16:11
  • logograms 3:18:48
  • long-term variation 4:17:38
  • loudness 3:06:35
  • lower-case letters 3:19:27

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M

  • Mateo story 5:13:27
  • mature language use 4:15:22
  • McDonald's 4:29:51
  • medical agenda for ‘How old are you?’ 1:21:50
  • memory loss 4:16:50
  • metre 3:06:56
  • modes of transmission 3:00:07
  • monologue 6:00:46
  • morphological change 4:25:14
  • morphology 2:19:46
  • mother-in-law languages 5:09:21
  • mother's voice recognized by baby 4:05:46
  • movement of writing on screen 3:29:29
  • multilingual acquisition device 5:13:07
  • multilingualism 5:11:36
  • multiple conversations online 3:29:15

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N

  • national accents 5:01:58
  • new words invented 1:10:12
  • non-segmental features in speech 3:06:09
  • non-segmental features in writing 3:19:43
  • nonverbal communication 1:05:27
  • normal non-fluency 2:25:38
  • NVC 1:05:27

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O

  • official enquiry agenda for ‘How old are you?’ 1:21:48
  • old age and language 4:16:05
  • ‘order restored’ example of passive 1:27:01
  • origins of speech 4:18:20
  • origins of writing 4:18:39
  • overuse of features 6:03:30

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P

  • paragraphs 2:10:33
  • paralanguage 3:07:10
  • passive hunt 1:25:48
  • passive vocabulary 2:06:48
  • passives in English 1:24:39
  • passives in exam questions 1:19:19
  • passives in language acquisition 2:28:12
  • passives in reading books 3:23:13
  • periods of a language 4:18:56
  • personal variation 5:15:39
  • personality factors 6:07:57
  • philology 4:17:58
  • phonetics 3:02:28
  • phonology 3:03:49
  • ‘pictures stolen’ example of passive 1:26:43
  • pidgins 5:01:26
  • ping pong punning 5:24:20
  • Pinter, Harold 5:26:07
  • pitch range in babytalk 4:13:27
  • pitch range in everyday speech 4:13:57
  • plain language 6:07:14
  • playing with language 4:11:00
  • politeness agenda for ‘How old are you?’ 1:22:09
  • political correctness 6:07:33
  • pragmatics and language change 4:19:58
  • pragmatics as a subject 1:17:41
  • pragmatics in early learning 4:09:10
  • prescriptivism in language acquisition 2:29:52
  • prescriptivism in schools 6:10:41
  • present continuous 4:29:23
  • print discourses 6:14:29
  • productivity in language 1:09:49
  • productivity in language acquisition 2:24:51
  • pronoun use 1:24:33
  • pronunciation and pragmatics 1:27:29
  • pronunciation as a mode of transmission 3:02:15
  • pronunciation change 4:26:29
  • prosody heard in the womb 4:05:26
  • prosody in phonetics and phonology 3:06:47
  • proxemics 1:05:19
  • psychological factors in discourse 6:09:55
  • punning across languages 6:26:40
  • punning match 5:23:33
  • purist attitudes 4:28:46
  • ‘push’ example 2:17:13

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Q

  • questions 5:26:16

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R

  • rap 3:15:54
  • reading ability 3:22:13
  • Received Pronunciation 5:06:57
  • recognition of mother's voice 4:05:46
  • regional identity 5:00:33
  • repetition in babytalk 4:13:45
  • repetition in everyday speech 4:14:10
  • revitalization of languages 5:11:15
  • rhyme as evidence of change 4:26:48
  • rhythm as stress-timing 3:14:16
  • rhythm as syllable-timing 3:14:37
  • rhythm heard in the womb 4:05:25
  • rhythm in language acquisition 4:08:20
  • rhythm in phonetics and phonology 3:06:32
  • role in society 5:08:51
  • RP 5:06:57

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S

  • Scots accent of Edinburgh 5:07:12
  • Scots accent of Glasgow 5:04:16
  • segments of speech 3:04:44
  • segments of writing 3:19:17
  • semantic fields 2:07:38
  • Semantic Web 2:01:21
  • semantics and grammar 2:13:47
  • semantics defined 2:00:47
  • semiotics defined 1:02:46
  • senescence in language 4:16:29
  • sense conveyed by grammar 2:16:00
  • sense relationships 2:08:04
  • senses used in communication 1:03:16
  • sensitivity about accents 5:02:17
  • sentence length 1:10:54
  • sentence sequence 2:23:13
  • sentence structure 2:23:13
  • sentence-connecting adverbs 3:25:48
  • sentences conveying sense 2:15:09
  • sequences of words 2:10:01
  • sequencing problem 2:11:15
  • Shakespeare in original pronunciation 27:37
  • Shakespeare's vocabulary 2:04:45
  • short-term variation 4:01:17
  • sign language 3:00:32
  • sixth sense 1:03:31
  • skimming in reading 6:23:37
  • smell in animals 1:03:57
  • social identity 5:08:07
  • social networking 6:16:07
  • sociolinguistics 5:01:01
  • sociolinguistics and stylistics 5:17:56
  • sound systems 3:03:57
  • spacing 3:19:57
  • spam 6:21:18
  • Spanish Inquisition 5:25:30
  • speech as a medium 3:02:09
  • speech disability and personal variation 5:19:44
  • speech disability and sequencing 2:11:08
  • speech origins 4:18:20
  • speech sciences 1:13:16
  • speed of speech 3:06:38
  • spelling as evidence of change 4:27:05
  • spelling as part of graphology 3:19:34
  • spelling in emails 6:08:25
  • stammering 2:25:53
  • story-telling and sequencing 2:10:56
  • story-telling by old people 4:16:20
  • story-telling in writing 3:23:51
  • story-telling in young children 2:25:08
  • stress-timing in babies 4:08:30
  • stress-timing in English 3:14:16
  • structure and use 1:13:51
  • structure of language 2:00:07
  • structure of words 2:20:10
  • style 5:16:01
  • stylistics 5:18:11
  • syllabaries 3:18:56
  • syllables in speech 3:04:58
  • syllables in writing 3:19:25
  • syllable-timing in babies 4:08:41
  • syllable-timing in French 3:14:37
  • synonyms 2:08:09
  • syntactic change 4:25:29
  • syntax 2:21:59

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T

  • ‘table’, meanings 2:14:36
  • taboo 5:09:31
  • tactile communication 1:04:57
  • taste in animals 1:03:57
  • ‘teddy bear and panda’ example 2:28:27
  • telepathy 1:03:31
  • telephone discourse 6:14:42
  • temporal variation 4:01:04
  • terms of address 1:28:23
  • text linguistics 6:01:14
  • texting in different languages 6:24:46
  • text-messaging poetry 6:22:12
  • ‘the old ruined house stood on the hillside’ 1:16:18
  • ‘this is a table’ 1:14:57
  • ‘thou’ and ‘you’ 4:20:12
  • tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon 4:16:56
  • tone of voice and pragmatics 1:27:33
  • tone of voice in phonology 3:06:40
  • tones in English 3:08:19
  • topic sentences 2:10:36
  • Torquemada 5:25:26
  • touch behaviour 1:07:55
  • tu versus vous 1:23:10
  • turn-taking 4:09:39
  • tutoyer 1:24:07
  • Twitter 6:16:15

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U

  • ungradable antonyms 2:09:43
  • usage complaints 4:28:26
  • use dimensions 4:00:14

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V

  • variation in individuals 5:15:39
  • variation in place 5:00:15
  • variation in society 5:08:07
  • variation in time 4:01:04
  • varieties learned by adults 4:15:44
  • visual communication 1:04:57
  • vocabulary change 4:23:35
  • vocabulary in early reading 3:22:51
  • vocabulary in pragmatics 1:28:09
  • vocabulary learning by children 2:08:22
  • vocabulary productivity 1:10:00
  • vocabulary size of individuals 2:05:32
  • vocabulary size of Shakespeare 2:04:45
  • voice weakness in old age 4:16:38
  • voiceprinting 5:19:27
  • vowels 3:04:50

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W

  • wardrobe metaphor for language 6:11:53
  • webpage design 6:09:30
  • whisper 1:27:47
  • Wikipedia 6:19:58
  • womb as a hearing environment 4:03:26
  • word coining 2:20:37
  • word endings 2:21:05
  • word order changes 4:25:29
  • word order effects 1:16:40
  • word order in syntax 2:21:59
  • word structure 2:20:10
  • word versus lexeme 2:02:14
  • writing ability 3:17:40
  • writing early stories 3:23:51
  • writing origins 4:18:39
  • writing systems 3:18:22

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X

  • Ximenes 5:25:33

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Y

  • ‘yes’ intonation variants 3:08:19
  • Yorkshire accent 5:07:40
  • ‘you know’ 6:04:00

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Z

  • zoösemiotics 1:04:10

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