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Level 2

Chapter Resources

Review Questions

Chapter 1

How does information about poverty in schools and Maslow’s theory of hierarchical needs impact how you teach students from lower socio-economic households?

How does Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory and the section from Chapter One on learning preferences affect your thinking about the type of interactions you might have with your students?

What are some strategies that you might use to help develop your “withitness” as a teacher?

Describe the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.  When might it be good to extrinsically motivate students?  What are one or two specific ideas for developing your students’ intrinsic motivation?

What is academic language? How does awareness of academic language help English language learners?

Chapter 2

Compare and contrast the formal, delivered, learned, null, and hidden curricula.  What examples of each can you provide?  Which has the greatest impact on student learning?  Why?

What kind of content, skills, attitudes and thought processes enable a person to live a good fulfilling life? How can your course curriculum improve your students’ lives?

What do you think about the standards movement?  How does a set of national and state standards impact your content areas positively?  What negative impact might it have?

Has your state adopted the Common Core State Standards? What is the implementation plan for them in middle schools and high schools?

How will you decide on your course goals?

Chapter 3

What are the purposes of learning targets?

We suggest thinking of targets in terms of content, skills, and social interactions. How will these areas help you organize your daily lesson plans?

Describe the relationship of diagnostic, formative, and summative assessments.  How can they work together to promote student achievement?

What is an example of an authentic assessment for your content area?

Chapter 4

What if your subject area’s textbook(s) does not reflect your school’s year-long scope and sequence of the course?  What strategies could you utilize in order to make curricular decisions?

Can you think of examples that illustrate Schwab’s (1973) “milieu,” or the environment in which teaching and learning take place?  Which of these occur on a daily basis that might hinder student learning?

Compare and contrast unit goals, essential questions, and objectives.  How are they similar? How are they different?

What are the most important reflective questions that should be asked by a new teacher?

Chapter 5

Oftentimes, students play a passive role during lectures, and are not required to participate beyond listening, note-taking, and asking occasional questions.  Can you think of other ways the teacher can facilitate students engagement in higher order thinking tasks besides those examples given in the chapter?

The introduction, or hook, to a lecture is critical because it helps students focus on, and engage with, the content.  Depending on the subject being studied, your classroom make-up, and especially your personality, hook activities vary to a large extent.  What are some of the hooks you could use in your lectures? 

During a lecture the classroom needs to be quiet and focused in order to maximize student learning and minimize student distractions.  Discuss approaches in redirecting students who appear to be distracting others.

Exit cards are a quick assessment tool for checking students’ understanding at the conclusion of your lecture.  Come up with several short and concise speaking/writing assessments for determining what students learned from a lecture.

Chapter 6

The primary distinction between Questioning and Lecture is that one is teacher-centered while the other is student-centered.  How can the teacher provide a greater sense of ownership by the students when s/he leads questioning sessions?

Considering your years of schooling, which of the common classroom management errors related to questioning students resonates with you?  Give examples.

What are some objectives in your content-area that might be well suited for this strategy?

When might a “popcorn” approach (i.e., having students respond very quickly to your questions) and not using wait time be an effective questioning technique in your content area?

What is one consideration for English language learners (ELLs) that you might use when questioning students?

Chapter 7

Reflect on the concept formation lesson that you developed for your content area.  What benefits would this approach have for your students?  What benefits would it have for you as a teacher?

What are some “dynamic concepts” in your content area that you believe are not appropriate for the concept formation strategy?

How do you explain the relationship amongst facts, concepts, and generalizations?

How were concepts taught to you when you were in middle school or high school?  How is the concept formation approach different?

Chapter 8

What advantages does cooperative learning offer in your specific content area? 

Of the three types of cooperative learning discussed in this chapter (STAD, Jigsaw, and Group Investigation), do any of them seem better suited to your content area?  Why?

Do any of them seem more difficult to employ in your content area?  Why?

How can ELLs benefit from being partnered with an English speaker? How can an English speaker benefit from being partnered with an ELL?

What are some creative ways you have observed that teachers form groups?

Chapter 9

Which of the theatric strategies discussed in the chapter seem particular suited to your content area? 

Content area aside, which strategy would you feel most confident using?  Why? Which strategy would you feel least confident using?  Why?

Compare and contract role plays, simulations, and dramatizations.  How are they different?  How are they similar?

In addition to the “Simulation Rubric” provided in the chapter, what are some valid assessments for the theatric strategies?

Chapter 10

If the ability to be an active participant in a discussion is such a powerful skill for students to have, why isn’t it practiced more in the classroom?

What advantages and barriers are there to holding an Electronic Threaded Discussion?

Of the six types of discussion mentioned which seem(s) most plausible for use in your content-area?  Why?

What strategies can you employ to take the emphasis off “winning the argument” and place it on critical thinking and interacting? 

Chapter 11

Student Directed Investigation implies that students learn best kinesthetically, is this an accurate assumption?

Is it at all possible to incorporate Student Directed Investigations in a “teacher centered” class?  If so, how would that look?

Provide a rationale for using student directed investigations in your class.  What arguments can you make that these investigations can prepare students for standardized achievement exams?

What are the roles you will play as the “facilitator” of a classroom using student directed investigations?  In addition to the assessment strategies mentioned in the chapter, how will you assess student learning?

PowerPoint Slide

Useful Weblinks

Chapter 1

Culturally relevant teaching is from the Education Alliance at Brown University:

A good place to continue your learning can be found at Dave’s ESL Café:

Census Bureau data about poverty can be retrieved at

Go to the technology-infused lesson plan database created by in-service teachers in Mississippi at CREATE:

Chapter 2

Professional Organizations with National Standards:

  • Art (National Art Education Association;
  • English (National Council of Teachers of English;
  • Foreign Language (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages;
  • Mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics;
  • Music (National Association for Music Education;
  • Physical Education (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance;
  • Science (National Science Teachers Association;
  • Social Studies (National Council for the Social Studies;

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) at the United States Department of Education site:

Education World website has an excellent link page to all of the state standards.

Common Core State Standards:

Federal Resources for Educational Excellence (FREE) sponsored by the United States Department of Education:

Chapter 3

Iowa State Universityoffers an excellent visual of the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy and examples of targets/objectives for each level:

RubiStaris one of many internet sites that are designed help teachers design, develop, and use rubrics:

The website “Authentic Education,” a company of which Grant Wiggins is president, is a helpful place for assessment and planning ideas:

Chapter 4

For quick access to the standards of all states visit this website with links for each state:

The Interstate TeacherAssessmentConsortium (InTASC) Standards can be found at this URL:

The Praxis II exam is reviewed at this URL:

Chapter 5

If you would like to know more about direct instruction, and how it might assist students, you may want to examine some examples online at the National Institute for Direct Instruction ( or the Association for Direct Instruction ( once you have identified specific needs of individual students in your class.

For templates to assist your lectures, visit:

A good layout example of effective PowerPoint slides, that includes non-examples, can be found at the International Association of Science and Technology Education website:

Several organizations promote storytelling, and have lists of storytellers who can come to your classroom (for example, the website provides lesson plans and ideas incorporating story telling into the classroom; is the home page of the National Story Telling Network, and provides resources and ideas for teachers.

Chapter 6

Step-by-step guidelines for Socratic seminars:

Chapter 9

Teaching English as a second language:

Assisting reluctant writers:

Free databases that can be searched by theatric strategy:

Tech Trekers is a private site that provides links to online simulations for most content areas:

This site has a variety of apps that simulate math and physics concepts such as sound waves and electrostatic fields:

Chapter 11

You can modify investigative ideas rather than trying to create them from scratch. These sites might help you get started: and