Routledge

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
Part 1. The Art of Teaching Science
Chapter 1. The Art of Teaching Science: A Reconnaissance
Chapter 2. Science for All
Chapter 3. Facilitating Science Learning
Part 2. The Goals and the Curriculum of School Science
Chapter 4. On the History of Science Education
Chapter 5. Science in the School Curriculum
Chapter 6. Science, Technology and Society in the Science Classroom
Part 3. Connecting Theory and Practice in Science Teaching
Chapter 7. How Adolescents Learn Science
Chapter 8. Models of Science Teaching
Chapter 9. Designs for Learning
Part 4. Strategies of Science Teaching
Chapter 10. Assessing Active Science Learning
Chapter 11. Strategies Fostering Thinking In The Science Classroom
Chapter 12. The Internet: Learning Science with Online Resources
Appendix A: Science Curriculum Developers
Appendix B: Professional Societies and Organizations
Appendix C: Science Equipment and Computer Software Suppliers
Index

Contents
Preface
Introduction

Part 1. The Art of Teaching Science

Chapter 1. The Art of Teaching Science: A Reconnaissance

Case to Consider: A First Year Teacher's Dilemma
How to Read This Chapter
SECTION I: A RECONNAISSANCE
Invitations to Inquiry
The Artistry of Teaching
Core Ideas of Science Teaching
Core Idea 1: Stewards of student learning
Core Idea 2: Pedagogical content knowledge specialists
Core Idea 3: Facilitators of student learning
Core Idea 4: Lifelong learners and inquirers into one's own science teaching
Core Idea 5: Members of a community of practice
Inquiry Activity 1.1: Exploring Your Initial Ideas About Science Teaching
Science Teaching: Your Career Choice
Learning to Teach from Experience and Reflection
Inquiry Activity 1.2: Teaching to Learn: Reflective Teaching
Wisdom-of-Practice
On The Nature of Science Teaching
On The Nature of Science
What is Science?
Science and Courage
Human Imagination and Creativity
Science and Human Values
Science and Democracy
The Scientific Enterprise and Teaching
Inquiry Activity 1.3: Surveying Students' Views of Science
Inquiry and Science Teaching
What is Inquiry?
Inquiry and Constructivism
Inquiry in the Science Classroom
Environments That Foster Inquiry Learning
Life Beyond Inquiry
Cooperative and Collaborative Learning
Learning Through Direct/Interactive Teaching
The Scientist and The Student: Two Cultures?
Some Differences
Bridging the Gap
The Students We Teach: Who Are They?
The Effective Science Teacher: Who Are You?
Effective Teachers
SECTION II. SCIENCE TEACHER GAZETTE
Volume 1: The Art of Teaching Science: A Reconnaissance
The Reflective Teaching Lessons
Related Research and Literature: Science is Not Words by Richard P. Feynman
Interview a Science Teacher: Wisdom of Practice
Interview Questions
Problems and Extensions
Readings
On The Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Endnotes

Chapter 2. Science for All

Case to Consider: All can learn, but will they?
How To Read This Chapter
SECTION I: SCIENCE FOR ALL
Invitations to Inquiry
Global Thinking
Events Fostering Global Thinking
Rationale for Global Thinking
Global Thinking Activities and Curricula
Changing Social Structure of the World
Global Consciousness
Globalization
Goals of Global Thinking: Implications for Science Teaching
Infusing Global Thinking into the Science Curriculum
Using the Internet to Globalize the Classroom
World Core Curriculum
Inquiry Activity 2.1: Exploring Global Thinking
Global Thinking and Multiculturalism
The Multicultural Perspective
What is Multicultural Education?
Status and Goals
Talent Development Approach
Multicultural Science Teaching
School Level
Science Department/Team Level
In the Science Classroom
Some Key Aspects of Multicultural Science Education
Alternative Ways of Knowing
Linguistic Pluralism
Cultural Inclusive Science
Students' World View
Critical Multicultural Perspective
Effective Teaching Practices
Culturally Responsive Teaching
Cooperative Learning
Instructional Conversation
Cognitively Guided Instruction
Technology-Enriched Instruction
Inquiry Activity 2.2: Investigating Images Portrayed in Science Teaching Materials
Gender Issues
Participation of Women in Science
Strategies to Encourage Females in Science Courses and Careers
Changing Classroom Practice: Collaborative Action Research
Successful Program Characteristics
Successful Teaching Strategies
Inquiry Activity 2.3: Transforming Your Practice as a Science Teacher
Science for All Exceptional Students
The Exceptional Student in the Science Classroom
Physically Impaired Students
Motor/Orthopedic Impaired Students
Visually Impaired Students
Hearing Impaired Students
Learning Disabled
The Gifted and Talented in Science (Advanced Learners)
Characteristics of Advanced Students
Why Advanced Students Don't Reach Their Potential
Science Learning Environments for Advanced Learners
At-Risk Students in Science (Struggling Learners)
SECTION II. SCIENCE TEACHER GAZETTE
Volume II. Science for All
Related Research and Literature: Our Apartheid: The Imperative of Multiculturalism in Science Education by Randy Moore
Research Matters: Encouraging Girls in Science Courses and Careers by Jane Butler Kahle
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes

Chapter 3. Facilitating Science Learning

Case to Consider: Participating in Class
How to Read This Chapter
Section I: Facilitating Learning in the Classroom
Invitations to Learning
Facilitation and Leadership in the Science Classroom
Inquiry Activity 3.1: The Effective Leader Project
The Facilitative Science Teacher
Teacher-Centered Facilitation The Traditional Perspective
Effective Management Behaviors
Management Plans for the Science Laboratory Activities
Student-Centered Facilitation: A Humanistic Perspective
Social Constructivism
Cooperative Learning
Facilitating High Level Thinking Tasks
Inquiry 3.2: Windows into Science Classrooms
Effective Teaching for the Beginning of the Year
Room Arrangements
Consideration of Rules and Procedures
Rules for the Science Classroom
Beginning and End of Class
Handling Materials and Equipment
Inquiry Activity 3.3: Classroom Management and Lab Safety Plan
The First Day
First Day Lessons
Beyond Day One
Inquiry Activity 3.4: Planning for Three Weeks
Science Teaching Materials and Facilities
Materials for Science Teaching
Inventorying Science Materials
Inquiry Activity 3.5: Preparing a Science Equipment Order
Facilities for Science Teaching
SECTION II: SCIENCE TEACHING GAZETTE
Volume 3: Facilitating Learning in the Science Classroom
Safety in the Science Classroom
A Safe Science Environment
Chemical Safety
Living Organisms in the Classroom
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes
Part 2. The Goals and the Curriculum of School Science

Chapter 4. On the History of Science Education

Case to Consider: Fallacies as Norms
How to Read This Chapter
Invitations to Inquiry
The Goal of Science Education: Scientific Literacy for All Students
Current Status of the Goals of Science Education
Project 2061: Science for All Americans and Benchmarks for Science Literacy
The Scope, Sequence and Coordination Project
The National Science Education Standards
Inquiry Activity 4.1: The Goals of the Science Curriculum
Goals Beyond the Standards
Science for Everyday Life
Attitudinal Goals
Inquiry Activity 4.2: Icons of Science Education---How Do They Tell the Story of Science Education?
Science Education: An Historical Perspective
An Inquiry into the Historical Nature of Science Education
Phase I: The Roots of Modern Science Education-Pre-1900 - 1930
Phase II: Progressive Education and Science, 1930-1950
Phase III: The Golden Age of Science Education, 1950 - 1977---Beginnings of Modern Reform
Phase IV: Textbook Controversies and Back to Basics, 1975 - 1983.
Phase V. A Nation at Risk, The 1980s
Phase VI. The Reform Efforts of the 1990s: A Contrast with the Golden Age
Inquiry Activity 4.3. How Were Course Improvement Projects of the 1960s Different from the Reform Projects of the 1990s?
Phase VII. Science for All and 21st Century Science Education
SECTION II: SCIENCE TEACHING GAZETTE
Volume 4. On the History of Science Education
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes

Chapter 5. Science in the School Curriculum

Case to Consider: Curriculum Map Conundrum
SECTION I: THE SCIENCE CURRICULUM
How to Read This Chapter
Invitations to Inquiry
The Curriculum: What is It?
Waves of Curriculum Reform
The Science Standards and the School Science Curriculum
Goals Underlying the Standards
Organization of the Content Standards
The Middle School Science Curriculum
Influential Middle School Science Projects
The Middle School Movement
Middle School Science Curriculum Patterns
Standards for Middle School Science
Exemplary Middle School Science Programs
Issue for Consideration for Middle School Science
The High School Science Curriculum
Contemporary High School Curriculum Patterns
Inquiry 5.1: Science Curriculum Patterns, District-to-District or Country-to-Country
High School Reform Projects
Inquiry Activity 5.2. Exploring Science Curriculum Materials
Exemplary High School Science Curricula
Science Curriculum - A Global Perspective
Australia by Roger T. Cross
Chile by Claudia Rose
China by Ronald F. Price
Ghana by Charles Hutchison
Japan by Shigehiko Tsukahara
Russia by Sergei Tolstikov
Turkey by Fatih Tasasr
SECTION II: THE SCIENCE TEACHING GAZETTE
Volume 5. The Science Curriculum
Research Matters: Using Textbooks for Meaningful Learning in Science by Sarah L. Ulerick
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes

Chapter 6. Science, Technology and Society in the Science Classroom

Case to Consider: A Student-Centered Project
How to Read This Chapter
SECTION I: STS IN THE SCIENCE CLASSROOM
Invitations to Inquiry
The Nature of STS
Some Characteristics of STS and EE Programs
Evidence to Support STS Teaching
Inquiry Activity 6.1: Getting Involved in STS, Humanistic and Context-Based Science
Strategies for Teaching STS in the Classroom
Clarifying Values
The STS Module
Inquiry Activity 6.2. STS Issues in Science Textbooks
STS Themes and How to Teach Them
Inquiry Activity 6.3. STS Module Design
STS Curriculum Examples
STS Evaluation Criteria
Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program (CEPUP)
ChemCom (Chemistry in the Community)
Project Learning Tree (PLT)
Other STS Materials
Inquiry Activity 6.4: Evaluating an STS Module or Project
SECTION II: SCIENCE TEACHING GAZETTE
Volume 6. Science, Technology and Society in the Science Classroom
Education for Environmental Sustainability by David L. Haury
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes
Part 3. Connecting Theory and Practice in Science Teaching

Chapter 7. How Adolescents Learn Science

Case to Consider: A New Approach to Learning
How to Read This Chapter
SECTION I: HOW DO ADOLESCENTS LEARN SCIENCE
Invitations to Inquiry
Inquiry 7.1: How Do Adolescents Learn Science?
Learners, Schooling and Education
Fatima's Rules: How Students' Play School
Dimensions of Science Learning
Theories of How Students Learn
From Theory to Practice, or Practice to Theory?
The Idea of Theory
John Dewey and the Experience of Learning
Deweyan Theory of Experience
Inquiry Activity 7.2: Concepts vs. Big Ideas: A Deweyan Experience
Dewey's Principles of Teaching and Learning
Jerome Bruner and the Process of Science Education
Bruner and Discovery Learning
Cognitive Learning Theory
From Cognitive Views to Cultural Psychology
Jean Piaget's Theory of Knowledge
Development of Mental Structures
Cognitive Processes
The Learning Cycle
Ernst von Glasersfeld and Radical Constructivism
Radical Constructivism
Traditional Teaching Compared to Radical Constructivism
Cycle of Learning Processes
Conceptual-Change Teaching
Lev Vygotsky and Sociocultural Perspectives on Learning
Scientific and Spontaneous Concepts
The Zone of Proximal Development
Implications for Learning
Collaborative Learning
Learning as Participation
Feminist Perspectives and Participation
Multicultural Perspective
Inquiry 7.3: Meeting of the Minds
Student Learning Styles: Implications for Teaching
Students, Teachers and Learning Style
Inquiry 7.4: Ideas about Student Learning Styles
The Psychology of Learning Styles
Brain Hemisphericity and Learning Styles
Applying Learning Style and Brain-Based Concepts to Science Teaching
SECTION II: SCIENCE TEACHER GAZETTE
Volume 7: How Adolescents Learn Science
Research Matters: Constructivism as a Referent for Science Teaching by Anthony Lorsbach and Kenneth Tobin
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes

Chapter 8. Models of Science Teaching

Case to Consider: Descent from Innocence
How to Read This Chapter
SECTION I: MODELS OF SCIENCE TEACHING
Invitations to Inquiry
Models of Teaching: How Can They Be of Help to the Science Teacher?
Constructivist Model of Conceptual Change
The Conceptual Change Model
Sociocultural Models: The Role of Collaboration in Constructing Knowledge
Peer Collaboration and Cooperative Learning
Communities of Practice
Inquiry Activity 8.1: Designing Project-Based Learning Activities
Inquiry Teaching
Inquiry and the Science Standards
What is Inquiry?
The Challenge of Inquiry
The Language of Inquiry
Inquiry in the Science Classroom
Some Questions About Inquiry
Inquiry Activity 8.2: Science Teaching As Inquiry
Direct/Interactive Teaching Model
Structuring Content for Direct-Interactive Teaching
SECTION II: SCIENCE TEACHING GAZETTE
Volume 8: Models of Science Teaching
Constructivist Learning Cycle Example 1: What Can Be Learned from Skulls?
Constructivist Learning Cycle Example 2: What Caused the Water to Rise?
Science Education Literature: Breaking into INQUIRY: Scaffolding Supports Beginning Efforts to Implement Inquiry in the Classroom by Charles Eick, Lee Meadows, and Rebecca Balkcom
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes

Chapter 9. Designs for Learning

Case Considered: Conversation between two High School Students and Their Teacher
How to Read This Chapter
SECTION I: Designing Science Units and Courses of Study
Invitations to Inquiry
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Inquiry Activity 9.1: On the Nature of Science PCK
The Design Process
Inquiry 9.2: A Window into a High School Science Teachers Approach to Lesson Planning
Designing a Mini-Unit
Phase I: Establish Learning Goals and Objectives
Phase II: Develop an Assessment Plan
Phase III: Plan Activities and Lessons
Designing a Course of Study
Elements of a Course of Study
Sample Course Plan
Inquiry Activity 9.3: Designing a Course of Study: The Course Syllabus
SECTION II: Science Teacher Gazette
Volume 9: Designs for Learning
Sample Lesson Based on the Constructivist Template: Biological Attraction
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes
Part 4. Strategies of Science Teaching

Chapter 10. Assessing Active Science Learning

Case Considered: Mrs. Cronin's Whirlybird Project: Assessment in Action?
How to Read This Chapter
SECTION I: ASSESSIING ACTIVE SCIENCE LEARNING
Invitations to Inquiry
Assessing Classroom Learning
Inquiry Activity 10.1: Designing an Assessment
Assessment in the Science Classroom
Formative and Summative Assessments
Multiple Methods of Classroom Assessment
Diagnostic Methods of Assessment
Formative Assessment Methods
Summative Methods of Assessment
Inquiry Activity 10.2. Designing Performance Assessment Tasks and Rubrics
Assessing Science Learning at the National Level
National Assessment of Educational Progress
NAEP Framework
National Results
State-Wide High-Stakes Tests
Assessing Science at the International Level
TIMSS: Trends in Mathematics and Science Study
PISA: Programme for International Student Assessment
ROSE: The Relevance of Science Education
SECTION II: SCIENCE TEACHING GAZETTE
Volume 10: Assessing Active Science Learning
Portfolio Used in a High School Biology Class
Research Matters: Science Literacy: Lessons from the First Generation by Marlene M. Hurley
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website
Readings
Endnotes

Chapter 11. Strategies Fostering Thinking In The Science Classroom

Case to Consider: The Learning Log
How to Read This Chapter
SECTION I: Strategies Fostering Thinking In The Science Classroom
Invitations to Inquiry
Strategies Fostering Thinking in the Science Classroom
Interactive Teaching Strategies
Advance Organizers
Creating a Stimulating Classroom
The Art of Questioning
Using Examples to Help Student Understand Science Concepts
Positive Learning Environments
Closure and Making Transitions
Inquiry Activity 11.1: Microteaching: Practicing Science Teaching Skills
Establishing a Culture of Learning: Language and Vygotsky
Talking Science
Reading Science
Sample Lesson 11.1: K-W-L Lesson Plan: Earthquakes
Writing Science
Sample Lesson 11.2: Writing to Learn Plan: Crusty (Rock) Writing
Sample Lesson Plan 11.8: Using the Learning Log with a Hands-on Activity
Strategies That Foster Independent and Collaborative Thinking
Problem Solving
Problem Solving in Practice: Project-Based Teaching and Science Fairs
SECTION II: SCIENCE TEACHER GAZETTE
Volume 11: Strategies Fostering Thinking in the Science Classroom
Research Matters: Using Questions in Science Classrooms, Patricia Blosser
Research Matters: When Are Science Learning Projects Learning Oppportunities? Marcia C. Linn and Helen C. Clark
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website
Readings
Endnotes

Chapter 12. The Internet: Learning Science with Online Resources

Case to Consider: Web-Based Teaching, Just Another Progressive Education Fad?
How to Read this Chapter
SECTION I: Web-Based Learning Environments
Invitations to Inquiry
Emerging Pedagogical Practices
Computer-Mediated Communication
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
Wireless Interactive Learning Devices
Web-Based Innovations
Outside Communication with Peers and Experts
Student Collaborative Research
Virtual Field Trips
Product Creation and Web Publishing
Social Action Projects
Virtual or Online Classroom
Inquiry Activity 12.1: Exploring Internet-Based Pedagogies
Network and Science Inquiry Projects
Network Science Projects
Inquiry Activity 12.2: Network Science-Exploring Online Projects
SECTION II: Science Teaching Gazette
Volume 12. The Internet: Learning Science with Online Resouces
Web-Based Projects
Mission to the Blue Planet: A Virtual Field Trip to Planet Earth
Project Ozone: An Inquiry into Air Quality
Hurricane Katrina
Problems and Extensions
On the Web
What's On the Companion Website?
Readings
Endnotes
Appendix A: Science Curriculum Developers
Appendix B: Professional Societies and Organizations
Appendix C: Science Equipment and Computer Software Suppliers
Index