Web Guide

Links from the Book

This section lists all the web addresses referenced in the book to save you the time of re-typing them and under additional sites you will find websites not mentioned in the book, but which we think will be useful.

1. Image Analysis
Additional sites
2. Narrative
3. Genre

4. Representation
Additional sites
6. Media Ideology

7. Media Audiences
8. Media Institutions
Additional sites

9. Broadcast Fiction: Heroes
10. Documentary and its hybrid forms
Additional sites
11. Lifestyle magazines and television
Additional sites,,1737280,00.html

12. News Production
Additional sites;jsessionid=TYLWN2WGMM14PQFIQMFSFF4AVCBQ0IV0?

13. Production
Additional sites

14. Planning/organising your studies

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Image Analysis
This site features hundreds of recent television advertisements that you can watch and analyse. Are there similarities between the codes used on different adverts for particular products e.g. cars?
On this site, Andy Savage includes clips of his favourite adverts. What are your favourite adverts and why? Consider if the adverts you love make you think positively about the product/company and whether you would be more likely to buy the products after seeing the advert and why.
Here you can look over thousands of old and new magazine adverts. The link above takes you to the section on fashion adverts, how do these compare to the Diesel advert analysed in the textbook?
Advertising is governed by laws and codes. Check out the Advertising Standards Authority website for information on what you can and can't say or show when advertising. Discuss why this might be so, and the risks of allowing advertisers free reign.
These sites feature adverts that have been banned. Do you agree with the reasoning? Are there any adverts on TV that you would like to be banned? If so, why?
There are a number of offensive representations and positive representations at the links above. Consider what elements of these adverts such as body positioning, context, colour, gender, race, etc. cause the advert to be viewed as a positive or negative representation.
Comments on the Diesel advertising campaign featured in our Image Analysis chapter can be found here. Consider the different reactions to the advertisements and whether this will help the company promote its products. How do you feel about the adverts?
At the above links you can view all the different adverts that make up the Diesel campaign of which the London advert featured in the Image Analysis chapter is a part and see some comments on the adverts. Conduct your own analysis of one of the other adverts in the same way as the London advert has been analysed in the book.

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This is an amazing site that features a useful guide to film narrative as well as a whole host of other film resources such as individual film study guides and resources for studying censorship, animation and a whole host of exciting film topics.
Little Miss Sunshine won the Original Screenplay award at the Oscars 2007. Have a look at the information here and the other nominees listed. Think about the narratives of each film and how the narrative might have affected their success.
There are a number of pieces of software to help with writing and formatting narrative scripts and a number of them can be downloaded here. How does the use of this technology affect the type of narratives that populate today's cinema?
At the ITN website you can watch headline news videos. Television news follows a narrative in the same way as a feature film, although its structure is perhaps less obvious.
Check out the link above for more information on Proppian character types.

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For a full list of genres and descriptions, sub-genres, and non-genre film categories, have a browse of the site above. Many films and some actors are easy to place into a genre category. Try making a key film/key actor resource for each genre.
Empire is a popular monthly film magazine. They offer trailers for future films on their website. Watch the trailers and see if you can identify the genre of the film. Which elements of the trailer led to your conclusion? How important is it that these trailers accurately communicate the film genre to the audience?
A wealth of information on TV shows, films, studios and actors. Try looking up your favourite actor and see if they have a tendency to appear in films of a particular genre. Some actor pairs such as Keanu Reeves and Sandra Bullock become associated with a particular genre. How many other pairs or individuals can you identify and which genre are they associated with?
The TV guide can be a handy tool in your analysis of genres and their audiences. How does the timeslot of each programme help you to identify the consumer group most likely to watch that programme? Which genre is populating the prime time slots?
Genre can also apply to magazines. The National Magazine Company is a leading producer of glossy magazines. Look at their website. What genre of magazines do they specialise in? Compare their magazines to those of Hachette Filipacchi Media. How do their audiences differ? How do the magazines suggest the genre they belong to?

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At You Tube you can see video clips from the public and can submit your own clips from your phone or camera. How does the representation of news and sports events differ here from on mainstream television?

Look at the world news pages above. How do representations of the same events differ? Which countries seem to be given more prominence in the news? How are countries signified by the images chosen for the news story?
Certain statutes in UK and European law work to protect minority groups. Think about the minority groups mentioned here. Would you have considered them as minorities? Do you think these groups have adequate representation in the media?
Now consider how these groups are portrayed within a tabloid newspaper, The Sun, and within a broadsheet newspaper, The Telegraph. Pay particular attention to the use of terms such as ‘immigrant’; ‘asylum seeker’; ‘refugee’; and ‘foreigner’. How does the choice of these terms change the tone of the article?
Many different representations of conflict can be seen here. What side of the conflict are we on, judging by the camera positioning?
Consider the character of Brian Potter from Phoenix Nights in the pictures and video here. Is this a positive or negative representation of disability. How many other disabled characters can you think of? How representative is this number?
ITV are encouraging viewers to send in their own images and video. How does this affect the quality of news we see on TV? Is this citizen media less biased than mainstream news? Does it offer a more realistic representation of events?

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Media Intertextuality
Watch the Mini Adventure adverts on this site. How do they play on recognised movies?

Cartoons and comedies often use references to other texts to cause amusement. Consider the Simpsons or Futurama which often knowingly play on the audiences knowledge of other texts such as Star Wars or even current political events.

Harry Potter is a good example of a number of spin-offs. There are the original books, the movies, the magazines, the toys, the videogames, the websites, and the list goes on. Other examples could be Lost, 24, or Prison Break

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Media Ideology
Look at the ages of the male and female stars of the latest movies. Are there any differences between the numbers of male and female stars in each age bracket? What does this tell us about the ideology of Western society?
The magazines above all present pictures of men and women. What do these pictures tell us about the type of person or the type of beauty valued in Western society? How would these images and the connotations change if we looked at an African magazine or a Brazilian magazine?

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Media Audiences
You can get recent and historic information on the percentages of audiences achieved by each of the terrestrial channels and others (Cable, satellite etc.). You can also see the number of households with a colour television. Think about how these figures have changed over time and may change in the future.
You can also get a summary per channel of favourite programmes and the most popular programmes over all channels. How might these programmes, and the channels that own them now, have affected viewing trends?
Looking at the figures for cinema attendance, can you suggest a reason for the peaks and troughs?
The TV guide can be a handy tool in your analysis of audiences. How does the timeslot of each programme help you to identify the consumer group most likely to watch that programme? Why are some programmes broadcast so late?
Statistics on radio listeners can be found here. You can view the number of listeners and the percentage of audience share per station or group. How often do you listen to the radio? Who do think the audience is for these channels?
Look at the data produced by BARB for the most popular TV programmes per channel. Try to identify the main uses and gratifications that these programmes may provide for viewers.
Look up the TV guide for tonight on ITV for your area. How many programmes involve ordinary people? Split these into different types of programmes and think about what the attraction of these programmes is. Draw up a questionnaire to find out who likes these programmes and why?

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Media Institutions

How do media corporations make themselves recognisable to different markets? Consider the corporation websites above and the ways in which they present themselves around the world.
News ownership is becoming less diverse because large corporations and merging with other companies all the time. British news is now distributed by far less organisations making our information less pluralistic. Look at the organisations listed above for an idea of who is providing our news.

Look at the American corporations above, all film studios which have their own niche of productions. Identify the similarities between the film stars, genres and history of the companies.
Look at the above website and consider the nationality of the programmes from each channel for a week. Then look at the films on and note the nationality of those as well. Does it vary from channel to channel or do most channels share American products?
Mergers in the media industry are becoming a part of everyday life because so many organisations want to be a part of a wealthy production; this has its downfalls though, what are the disadvantages for the industry?

Above there are English football team websites, look at the sponsorships they have. Notice the different media outlays that are involved in football. Sponsorships include an airline company, phone network companies, alcohol, online betting, insurance companies etc. Why do you think these companies choose to invest into football teams? Do you think these companies set high standards for the supporters? Should a child be wearing a shirt advertising alcohol and online betting when they themselves should not be concerned with such products?
Look at the above website and look at current conflicts in media. Consider the ongoing saga between Virgin Media and BSkyB. Also note the recent complaints from the public for television programmes such as the documentary on Princess Diana. Pay particular attention to the new ‘tougher rules’ for television phone-ins, why have the rules been changed?

Satellite television is becoming readily available throughout the world; there are now more options for the public. The audience can now record television, and start watching a program before it has finished. What are the effects of all these new developments?

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Broadcast or Film Fiction
Visit the Fox website and consider the number of prime time fiction shows they have listed. Are there any similarities between the narrative structure of these shows? Consider, for example, the differences between 24, Prison Break, Bones or The Simpsons. What effect does the narrative structure and filming techniques have on the show's effect? Think about the mix of genders, races and nationalities within the series and especially within the main character groups. Are there any similarities? Why might this be so?
There are loads of statistics available from the UK Film Council. You can see which films have been most popular each year, who watches films in the UK and read an analysis of the success of UK film talent around the world. Look at the audience figures in the 06/07 yearbook and consider why some films might have been more popular than others. Research the top 5 films and see how much marketing is available for each — film websites, distributor websites, reviews, trailers, posters etc. The look for how many spin-off products exist such as T-shirts, games, TV shows, magazines, books etc.

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Documentary and its Hybrid Form
Consider the realism of Coronation Street compared to Dogville (2003).Coronation Street tries to create an exceedingly realistic environment — even broadcasting a Christmas Day show on Christmas Day. In contrast, Dogville was filmed on a theatrical set with minimalist scenery where labels where used to denote scenery that did not exist.
Clips from docu-soap Airline and from drama documentary Hillsborough can be viewed at the links above. Which of these offer a more accurate representation of reality? Why do you think this is?

Documentaries can be extremely political. Consider the responses to Michael Moore's films. Do you feel he has edited or presented his footage in such a way as to unfairly represent reality? Has he biased his audience? How does his approach differ from a newsroom such as the BBC, CNN, Fox, or ITN which may present news from a different ideological standpoint? Do these newsrooms present unbiased reality?
Read the news story above. Why have noddies caused such controversy? Do you think the use of noddies makes interviews less real or is fraudulent?
Anyone can upload or watch a film from this site. Watch the previews of some of the documentaries and consider how they have been made.
You can watch a number of free documentaries here. Consider how documentaries have been used to address political or social issues. How effective do you feel they have been and why?

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Lifestyle Magazines
At the Periodical Publishers Association there are facts and figures on the circulation and readership of a number of different magazines. Can you see any patterns? Is there a difference between the sexes or between ages in terms of magazine consumption?

How do magazines brand themselves to appeal to different markets? Consider the magazine websites above and the ways in which they present women and men. How does this help tell us whether they are aimed at a male, female or general audience? Are there differences between the printed magazines and the websites? Look at the colours, the articles and the adverts to get a feel for the market they are trying to reach.
Emap own a number of magazines, TV and radio stations. To what extent do these complement each other? Can you put together a magazine and a TV or radio station owned by Emap that market the same ‘community’?
Advice columns from these magazines are available online and you can even post your problem and get replies from other readers. Does the advice area of these magazine websites try to reassure readers? There have been accusations that teen magazines condone under-age sex. Do you think these websites offer responsible advice? Discuss the ‘moral panic’ these cause and why.
The press release above is about the closure of J-17 magazine. Consider whether the magazine failed because it was too similar to its competitors.

Analyse the websites of any of the magazines listed above or so far in this guide in a particular genre e.g. teenage, women's, lads. Identify the extent to which they share the same mode of address and iconography.,,1737280,00.html
Read the above new story. How do the views here relate to the reading of Nuts magazine?

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Look at today's news from television broadcasters. Then compare it with the headlines from today's newspapers. What differences do you notice?

Look at the differences in national newspapers. Do they run the same front page headlines? Are images similar? How differently are feature stories written?
Look at the history of newspapers in Britain and how they have changed.

Look at two broadsheets and two tabloids. What audience do you think they are writing for? Who owns the newspaper, is it clear which political party they support? Are the styles of vocabulary, images, links to other stories similar?

Look at any of the British newspapers above and think about the amount of news written about celebrities. How much does it vary from newspaper to newspaper?

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Production Skills

When creating a publication such as a magazine you need to consider: the audience that the publication is intended for, the subject matter which you are going to include and your current competition. Create your own plan for a magazine, using these sites as examples.
There are a number of pieces of software to help with writing and formatting narrative scripts and a number of them can be downloaded here.
Watch the short film here on what to do in a zombie attack and analyse how it has been produced.

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Study Skills
A useful guide on how to write an essay
The University of Southampton study skills website is a useful source of tips on improving study and graduate skills.
Free tutorials on a range of skills and techniques in relevant areas.
The site above offers free downloads about different aspects of study skills.
eStudyCentre pulls together extracts from the best books currently available on study skills.
Study Guides and Strategies
A guide to learning styles
James Cook University in Queensland. A knowledge of your own and others' preferred learning styles can be of great benefit to your study at university as well as any aspect of your life that involves teaching and learning.

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