Routledge

LEARNING RESOURCES

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Preface

W0.1 Digital technologies have direct relevance for identifying, and attempting to resolve, the language needs faced by language users (and applied linguists), and they feature prominently in all chapters of Mapping Applied Linguistics. Indeed, just as we get directions now from GPS systems and online maps, this book is part of a broader online applied linguistics project anchored in this companion website.

W0.2 Chris's website.

W0.3 Patrick's website.

W0.4 Rachel's website.

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Chapter 1 Introduction

W1.1 According to some estimates, people speak as many as 7,000 different languages on the planet today, belonging to more than a hundred distinct families.

W1.2 Current estimates of the number of languages in the world today represent only a tiny fraction of the languages that have existed through the millennia; the globalizing forces of transport, trade, exploration, and conquest over the last thousand years have caused the abrupt disappearance of many of them: currently at about two a month according to commonly accepted estimates.

W1.3 Over 770 million adults are categorised as illiterate, according to UNESCO figures.

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Chapter 2 Language variation

W2.1 Language authorities are often self-nominated; for example, Ron Unz, the anti-bilingual education activist in the US.

W2.2 Differences between varieties can be empirically described by linguists, but it important for applied linguists to be aware of how users imbue these differences simultaneously with two fundamentally different forms of meaning: linguistic and social significance.

W2.3 It could be argued that all varieties function as the standard (the norm for the context) somewhere, usually in the geographic location(s) or social contexts in which the speakers who speak them are situated, but also in text-types or in cyberspace (see Leetspeak, for example).

W2.4 and W2.5 Accents in the UK are regularly associated with stereotypical regional characteristics, with the use of ‘standard’ forms like RP normally judged more positively than those of ‘nonstandard’ forms like Brummie (from Birmingham) or Cockney (from London).

W2.6 Describing speech sounds.

W2.7 British sign language.

W2.8 The strong connection between dialect and non-linguistic group identity is seen especially clearly at the level of 'nation', where dialects associated with national identities regularly get called languages in their own right, despite their mutual intelligibility with other dialects beyond the national borders. See, for example, the Ethnologue entry for Flemish in Belgium (also known as Dutch, in The Netherlands).

W2.9 The Ethnologue entry for Hindi.

W2.10 The Ethnologue entry for Swedish.

W2.11 Within nation states, dialects of the majority language spoken by minority groups with power are often recognised as languages, whereas those of other significant minorities without power remain dialects. For example Scots, which is claimed as a separate language from English in Scotland, is no more unintelligible from neighbouring ‘Geordie’ than African American English is from Mexican American English.

W2.12 The Ethnologue entry for Catalan and Valencian.

W2.13 Dennis Preston (2002, pp. 62–64) argues that the identification in most people's minds between attitudes to speaker and attitudes to speech can only be fully explained if we acknowledge the fundamental opposition between linguistic and non-linguistic theories of language. This website has several examples of Preston's methods and findings.

W2.14 The stated purpose of the Dictionnaire de l'Academie Française (founded 1694) is to ‘fix the usage of the language’ (Fixe l'usage de la langue).

W2.15 The motto of the Real Academia Española, which published its first dictionary in 1780, is “Limpia, fija y da esplendor” (cleanse, fix and make resplendent).

W2.16 More information about the classification of writing systems.

W2.17 During the 20th century, Cantonese developed its own written form, but is not yet standardised, despite its increasing use in chat rooms and SMS messaging.

W2.18 The number of non-native users of English is estimated at over a third of the world's population (Graddol, 2006).

W2.19 The website of the professional organization Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

W2.20 An introduction to English as a lingua franca.

W2.21 Diwali, a poem by Vikram Seth.

W2.22 After Indian independence, the English language (or the ‘conqueror's tongue,’ as Seth calls it) did not, of course, disappear, and the linguistic legacy of colonialism in India continued to be both a blessing and a curse.

W2.23 The millions of users of English in the Outer Circle don't all use the same variety, the one promoted as the only valid version by the teachers and textbooks imported from the USA and the UK and promoted by the British Council and agencies of the US Department of State.

W2.24 Pidgin and Education: a position paper by Da Pidgin Coup at the University of Hawai'i, November 1999.

W2.25 The importance of ensuring that linguistic insecurity does not inhibit the transmission of localized languages is stated in the manifesto of the Foundation for Endangered Languages (2009). http://www.ogmios.org/home.htm

W2.26 The Rosetta Project is one of a number of initiatives which aims to document the planet's linguistic diversity before its inevitable and drastic reduction over the next few generations.

W2.27 Quotes from Airplane, the movie.

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Chapter 3 Key populations

W3.1 The National Federation of the Blind.

W3.2 The California-based Inside Deaf Culture website.

W3.3 Texts are available in many languages on the World Wide Web; see for example this website with audio recordings of 7,301 languages.

W3.4 According to Ethnologue (Lewis, 2009), of the 6,909 living languages, there are 172 with over three million native speakers.

W3.5 Pakistan's most recent census figures indicate that only 7.5 per cent of the population are Urdu speakers (Population Census Office, 1998).

W3.6 The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, designed to protect and promote minority languages and adopted by the Council of Europe in 1992.

W3.7 Statistics from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UNESCO, 2010) suggest that although there has been improvement over the past decade or so in both overall literacy rates and the elimination of illiteracy (UNESCO, 2008), there are still 774 million non-literate adults around the world, concentrated in the most populated nations of Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan.

W3.8 The Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP), successfully piloted now in five countries.

W3.9 Clark and Dugdale (2008, p. 4), citing work by the Every Child a Chance Trust, reported that ‘70 per cent of pupils permanently excluded from school have difficulties in basic literacy skills’.

W3.10 According to World Health Organization statistics, there are over 35 million blind people in the world, and around 125 million with low vision (although the numbers have decreased since the 1990s, due in no small part to the World Health Organization's Vision 2020 campaign).

W3.11 Although the American Foundation for the Blind has been reporting decreasing Braille literacy in the US for over a decade (NFB, 2009), it is increasingly common to see Braille in public places, and the 2009 bicentenary gave it greater prominence in the public mind in many parts of the world.

W3.12 UK National Braille Week.

W3.13 Next to depression, hearing loss in old age is the second leading cause of YLDs (years lived with a disability).

W3.14 People who are born with normal language circuits but later go on to acquire some kind of impairment are said to have aphasia.

W3.15 Dyslexia appears to be a phonologically-based impairment, affecting people's reading, writing, and symbolic processing in general.

W3.16 US estimates for SLI range from two to eight per cent of children, with boys affected more than girls (NIDCD, 2004).

W3.17 Applied linguists have been occupied by the needs of people involved in judicial proceedings to have effective access to the code. They have been involved in campaigns for language clarity and simplification, some sponsored by governments and some by the profession itself.

W3.18 Some people study applied linguistics formally as part of a general undergraduate degree in linguistics.

W3.19 Other people may elect to continue their linguistic education by taking a (post)graduate qualification in applied linguistics, perhaps as a way of deciding which branch of the profession they would most like to work in.

W3.20 Ethnographic enquiry seeks to understand cultural situations and activities from the richly contextualized perspectives of the participants themselves. Ethnographers record what they observe from a holistic perspective, with no preconceived expectations about what to look for and what to ignore. (Are your participants online? Try ‘virtual ethnography’).

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Chapter 4 Discourse analysis

W4.1 Discourse analysis has been used in a wide variety of fields, including: education (see here for an introduction to, and examples of, critical discourse analysis in education, discourse analysis in science education, theology (another CDA example), and business management research.

W4.2 Examples of electronic collections (corpora) of texts in British and (contemporary and historical) American English, Spanish and Portuguese.

W4.3 Corpus linguistics has been used in the preparation and evaluation of bilingual dictionaries.

W4.4 The findings of corpus linguists have been used in the preparation of resources for teachers of English as an additional language, for example see the Cambridge International Corpus.

W4.5 Corpus linguists have studied the core features of English used as a lingua franca; for example, the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English project.

W4.6 An introduction to speech act theory.

W4.7 The website of the International Systemic Functional Linguistics Association.

W4.8 For an introduction to conceptual blending theory, see Coulson and Oakley (2000), Blending basics.

Here is another introduction to conceptual blending theory, by Christopher Hart.

W4.9 An online introduction to conversation analysis by Charles Antaki.

W4.10 A multi-modal text about Gandhi on YouTube (search YouTube for lots more examples).

W4.11 An online introduction to action research by Jean McNiff.

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Chapter 5 Language policy and planning

W5.1 An example of corpus planning within a wider language planning framework for Africa.

W5.2 A language policy and planning framework by Richard Baldauf that puts status planning in its place.

W5.3 The implications of Singapore's language acquisition planning efforts are discussed by L. Quentin Dixon.

W5.4 A blog dedicated to discussion of linguistic landscapes, as visual representations of language use in a community.

W5.5 Vivian Cook's homepage gives examples of code-switching by additional language learners.

W5.6 The text of Canada's Official Languages Act can be found on the website of the Office of the The Commissioner of Official Languages.

W5.7 ProEnglish advocates English-only policies in the US, such as proposals to amend state and federal constitutions to make English the (sole) official national language.

W5.8 For a pro-linguistic diversity and language rights perspective on language policy issues, check out the the Institute of Language and Education Policy.

W5.9 Academia Argentina de Letras.

W5.10 The Organisation Internationale de La Francophonie is an intergovernmental organization set up largely at the instigation of Quebec and France's former African colonies in the mid-1970s to fortify French as a language of international communication and counter the dominance of English.

W5.11 The government of Singapore launched the ‘Speak Good English’ campaign in opposition to ‘Singlish’, which it sees as an obstacle to trade-based economic growth.

W5.12 A discussion of covert prestige.

W5.13 Talking Cock, home of the Coxford Singlish Dictionary.

W5.14 An example of language-in-education planning for Deaf students.

W5.15 Boa Senior was the last living speaker of Bo, a tribal language from the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. You can hear a recording of Boa speaking Bo on the BBC News website.

W5.16 You can monitor endangered language ‘hot spots’ around the globe at the Enduring Voices project, sponsored by National Geographic.

W5.17 UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger monitors and provides a database for study of 2,500 endangered languages.

W5.18 Multilingual services on the York City Council website in the UK.

W5.19 This Amnesty International report provides testimony from women, families, and public health experts on the urgent need for Quechua-speaking health care professionals in Peru.

W5.20 The Language Lizard website promises “to inspire kids through language” and sells bilingual books (English plus another language) in forty languages.

W5.21 Cinco Puntos Press publishes stories about the U.S.-Mexico borderlands and children's literature in Spanish/English bilingual books. You can visit publishers Bobby and Lee Byrd online.

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Chapter 6 Literacy

W6.1 The United Nations Literacy Decade campaign estimates that one in five adults (about 780 million people) cannot read or write, and that about two thirds of these are women.

W6.2 Deborah Hartz and her students at the Arizona School for the Blind talk about the contributions of new technologies to the reading and writing of Braille and increased access to Braille literacy.

W6.3 The Environmental Literacy Council defines environmental literacy and offers a wealth of teaching resources for environmental literacy educators.

W6.4 The Ocean Literacy Network maintains that ocean literacy is a vital area of knowledge for all citizens.

W6.5 The Environmental Literacy Council.

W6.6 The Maia Foundation is a charity organization that promotes health literacy among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Their website explores connections between literacy rates and women's health in Africa.

W6.7 Although its intelligence may be questionable, The CIA World Factbook offers public access to the US government's official accounting of literacy rates, education levels, and many other social indicators, country-by-country.

W6.8 Epigraphers study and interpret written inscriptions on hard surfaces, such as stone. To get an idea of what they do, visit Oxford University's Curse Tablets of Roman Britain site, complete with a section on Cursing for Beginners.

W6.9 W4nn4 tr4nsL4t3 L33t? Find out how.

W6.10 AncientScripts.com is a great resource for comparing different writing systems.

W6.11 Fray Toribio de Motolinía and other missionaries in New Spain were already firmly of the ‘alphabet mindset’, making it for them difficult to grasp the logographic complexities of the indigenous writing systems they encountered in central and southern Mexico. A digitized version of Motolinía's Historia de los Indios de la Nueva España can be found at the Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.

W6.12 A codex is an ancient manuscript in book form. The Mexican codices were painted on deerskin or bark paper. You can inspect color facsimiles from the Codex Vaticanus B and other codices at the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies.

W6.13 Oracy is communicative competence in spoken interaction. The word was coined by analogy with literacy in the 1960s. The ORACY Australia Association has developed resources for teaching and assessing oral communication with a focus on secondary level students.

W6.14 The Bank Street Guide to Literacy for Volunteers and Tutors is a user-friendly collection of resources on child literacy for tutors and teachers, including sample lesson plans and resources for working with emergent bilinguals. Their glossary of reading terms would be helpful to anyone teaching or tutoring literacy for the first time.

W6.15 The University of Connecticut's Literacy Web is a database of resources for literacy instruction. The lesson plans and other resources can be searched by age level or by topic.

W6.16 UNESCO's Literacy Decade campaign includes annual awards to recognize and support outstanding literacy programmes around the world. You can read about recent winners of UNESCO's International Literacy Prize from Cape Verde, Egypt, Germany, and Nepal, as well as the UNESCO King Sejong Literacy Prize and the UNESCO Confucius Literacy Prize, sponsored by the governments of the Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China.

W6.17 Braille literacy is the ability to read and write using the tactile system of raised dots that represents the Roman alphabet, as well as other alphabetic writing systems such as Korean. The Braille Institute has resources for English-speaking teachers and students of Braille.

W6.18 Kiwi Phonics is early literacy curriculum commissioned by the New Zealand Ministry of Education, based on the sounds of an idealized New Zealand English.

W6.19 The British Dyslexia Association provides resources and advocacy for dyslexic students, parents, adults and employers in the UK . Their website has basic information about dyslexia in nine languages in addition to English.

W6.20 Dyslexia International provides information on how dyslexia is studied, tested and remediated in different world contexts.

W6.21 The World Health Organization has recently adopted a definition of dyslexia that may lead to more standard assessment practices across countries.

W6.22 The Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English is a collection of 1.8 million words transcribed from lectures and other speech events at the University of Michigan. The Corpus was created and is maintained by researchers in the English Language Institute, and includes links to written and discipline-specific corpora.

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Chapter 7 The language of education

W7.1 The normative role of schools in children's language development has a very long history. Edmund Coote's The English Schoole-Maister (1997 [1596]) is perhaps the first-ever English language textbook (although it's actually closer to a dictionary).

W7.2 The Center for Applied Linguistics' Digest features a report from the original Funds of Knowledge/Learning from Language Minority Households project.

W7.3 Tendai Hildegarde Manzvanzvike's remembers the role of language and students' resistance to Afrikaans as the language of instruction in the June 16, 1976 Soweto massacre.

W7.4 SEN Teacher provides teaching and learning resources for students with special needs and learning disabilities.

W7.5 UNESCO's Salamanca Statement (1994, ix) recommends that all special needs children attend their local community mainstream school ‘unless there are compelling reasons for doing otherwise’.

W7.6 Educators at the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) have restructured language arts instruction to incorporate the discourse patterns of the Hawaiian oral tradition known as Talk Story.

W7.7 A recent job posting for a Test Development Specialist at the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) in Washington, DC sought an applied linguist to develop a large-scale English language assessment for Grades One — Five English language learners.

W7.8 Under England's National Curriculum, teachers of 'English' at Key Stage 2 (ages seven to ten) are expected to help pupils learn how to ‘talk effectively as members of a group’ through use of a number of language functions (QCA, 2009)

W7.9 An example of a curriculum document that describes what should be taught (content and attainment targets) is the UK National Curriculum for English at Key Stage 1 (for children ages five to seven).

W7.10 New South Wales (Australia) K-6 syllabus for Science and Technology and the Outcomes and Indicators document.

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Chapter 8 Bilingual and multilingual education

W8.1 The Multilingual Cities Project: cross-national perspectives on immigrant minority languages in Europe.

W8.2 South Africa is a nation with eleven official languages, the Khoe, San and South African sign language and many other community languages. The Pan South African Language Board promotes multilingualism and supports research on conditions of language use in South Africa.

W8.3 The Heritage Language Journal is published by the UCLA Center for World Languages.

W8.4 For a wealth of on-line resources on immersion education and research, visit the University of Minnesota's Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.

W8.5 Community Language Teaching, described by the UK 's National Centre for Languages.

W8.6 '‘Bilingual and Bright’ is a video of London Sixth-formers talking about their multilingualism at home and in ‘complementary’ schools, produced by the Our Languages project.

W8.7 The French Heritage Language programmes developed in a collaboration between the French government and the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) in the USA have had to be rethought and extended with the arrival of thousands of Haitian refugees to Canada and the US following the 2010 earthquake.

W8.8 UNESCO's International Declaration of Human Rights and other international policy statements recognize the rights of people to be educated in a language they understand.

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Chapter 9 Additional language education

W9.1 The number of speakers of English as an additional language continues to grow, for an estimate of numbers see English Next (published in 2006) and English Next India (published in 2010), both by David Graddol.

W9.2 Learners of English in China, for example, may prefer to be taught by a speaker of Indian English, as a more relevant (and possibly cheaper) alternative to a speaker of American or British English (D'Mello, 2004).

W9.3 Teachers of languages other than English are also exploring the question of target variety; for an example, see Tew (2004) on the teaching of Moroccan French to secondary school pupils in the UK with special educational needs.

W9.4 A brief introduction to some of the main themes in second language acquisition.

W9.5 This study of almost 1,800 US school children learning French and German finds that children taught an additional language over a period of two years using 'new' audiolingual methods are no better at listening, speaking or writing, and worse at reading, than their peers who had been taught using traditional methods. The study concludes that differences in classroom methodology are not associated with difference in attainment and that language labs are unlikely to be cost effective, given that they are not shown to accelerate learning and that there were cheaper ways of recording students (Smith & Baranyi, 1968).

W9.6 Despite the failure of the methods comparison studies to provide evidence for an association between method and attainment, the lure of the 'best' method continued to exert its influence over subsequent decades of educators. For a vivid example, look on YouTube for the short extract from the television documentary A Child's Guide to Language (BBC, 1983). In the extract, James Asher, an early proponent of the Total Physical Response (TPR) method, suggests that this method will, in future, make it feasible for pupils to leave primary school with three or four additional languages, which could then be 'fine tuned' for grammar, reading and writing at secondary school. More than 25 years after this documentary was made, the promise of TPR, and of a ‘best’ method in general, has not been realized.

W9.7 A European Union project called Don't Give Up provides examples of best practice for giving adult language learners motivation, one of the biggest differences between successful and unsuccessful learners.

W9.8 Learning styles are the different approaches people are believed to take to the acquisition of new information. The popular distinctions between ‘visual’ and ‘tactile’ learners, or between ‘thinkers’ and ‘doers’, illustrate the concept. Some scholars believe that if learners can identify their preferred style(s), they will be able to optimize their learning. Decide for yourself using North Carolina State University's online Index of Learning Styles questionnaire.

W9.9 The online Index of Learning Styles questionnaire uses multiple questions with two-option answers to assess your learning styles on four scales.

W9.10 For an example of an awareness-raising activity that aims to draw students' attention to the ways which they communicate in mixed language groups, see Wicaksono, 2009.

W9.11 The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) website.

W9.12 The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) website.

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Chapter 10 Translation

W10.1 The International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies is the major professional organization for translators.

W10.2 The Leipzig Glossing Rules provide international conventions for morphemic glosses in linguists' translations of language data.

W10.3 A translation of the Rosetta Stone from the British Museum, its home since 1802.

W10.4 The use of English and French as lingua francas at the UN in Geneva.

W10.5 Google Translate, an example of automatic translation software.

W10.6 Babel Fish, is another example of automatic translation software.

W10.7 An example of a terminology bank is the Government of Quebec's Grand dictionnaire terminologique in French, English and Latin.

W10.8 Another example of a terminology bank is Nuclear Threat Initiative's Chinese-English glossary of arms control and nonproliferation terms.

W10.9 A short video explaining Google Translate's use of statistical translation.

W10.10 WordReference.com provides an online translators' forum with different language threads.

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Chapter 11 Lexicography

W11.1 You can search for sample collocations for words that you input at The Collins Wordbanks Online English Corpus.

W11.2 The Compleat Lexical Tutor, a suite of tools from Tom Cobb at the Université du Québec à Montréal, contains a frequency profiler for texts you can input yourself.

W11.3 The Meaning of Liff: Douglas Adams and John Lloyd's dictionary of place names put to new uses.

W11.4 More information about the idea of words as mental networks.

W11.5 Grant Barrett's on-line Double-tongued dictionary of ‘fringe English, focusing on slang, jargon and new words’.

W11.6 An on-line version of Ambrose Bierce's The Devil's Dictionary.

W11.7 The Merriam-Webster Online dictionary, based on the 11th edition of their Collegiate Dictionary.

W11.8 The AskOxford site has now been replaced by World of Words, at Oxford Dictionaries Online.

W11.9 The Coxford Singlish Dictionary from Talking Cock, ‘Singapore's Premier Satirical Humour Website’.

W11.10 You can find rhymes, homophones, synonyms, polysemes, and pictures through the RhymeZone rhyming dictionary and thesaurus.

W11.11 You can get lists of words all ending with the same letter sequences, along with definitions and translations, at OneLook Dictionary Search.

W11.12 The Pan South African Language Board promotes the languages of South Africa, through dictionaries and many other projects.

W11.13 The website of the Académie Française.

W11.14 Data on English word associations is available at the Edinburgh Word Association Thesaurus.

W11.15 Tutors and parents of deaf children can request a copy of the electronic BSL Dictionary from Stories in the Air.

W11.16 BSL glossaries for science and art from the Scottish Sensory Centre at Edinburgh University.

W11.17 Examples of neologisms can be found at Birmingham City University's Neologisms in Journalistic Text website.

W11.18 An online BSL/English glossary for art and design. Allows users to look up a word, read the definition, watch the sign, and see an image and related words.

W11.19 Collins WordbanksOnline English corpus.

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Chapter 12 Forensic linguistics

W12.1 Publications page of the Dutch Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (NIOD). Scroll down or search for “Anne Frank” to find a downloadable English version of David Barnouw and Gerrold van der Stroom's (2003) study ‘Who betrayed Anne Frank’.

W12.2 To try your hand at reading spectrograms, visit Rob Hagiwara's Monthly Mystery Spectrogram Webzone. No longer monthly, but past mystery spectrograms are still available.

W12.3 Animations of sound waves from Dan Russell at Kettering University, Michigan, USA.

W12.4 This is the website for Francis Nolan and colleagues' DyViS project to assemble a baseline database of speakers for earwitness evidence. It contains an extensive overview and bibliography.

W12.5 UK forensic phoneticians' Position Statement Concerning Use of Impressionistic Likelihood Terms in Forensic Speaker Comparison Cases.

W12.6 Website of The Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII), which provides free internet access to Australasian legal materials (over four million searchable documents).

W12.7 A refugee review decision from Australia. The case materials include language analysis reports and a reference to the work of Diana Eades arguing against the use of spoken language data in judgements about nationality and language and origin.

W12.8 Guidelines for the Use of Language Analysis in relation to Questions of National Origin in Refugee Cases, drawn up in 2004 by the Language and National Origin Group.

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Chapter 13 Language pathology

W13.1 You can take a 3D tour of the brain at the US Public Broadcasting System's website for its series The Secret Life of the Brain.

W13.2 Eric Chudler's Neuroscience for Kids site at the University of Washington has a page on language and the brain, and is also available in several languages, including Chinese and Spanish.

W13.3 For some excellent animations of sound waves (including those produced by beer bottles being knocked together), visit Dan Russell's Acoustics and Vibration Animations page at Kettering University.

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Chapter 14 Prospects and perspectives

W14.1 Moore's Law 40th Anniversary.

W14.2 Sanitation as a Key to Global Health: Voices from the Field. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health.

W14.3 The One Laptop per Child project aims to supply the world's poorest children with a low-cost, networked PC.

W14.4 Developments in digital audio players (for mixing and playing music) have led to the availability of downloadable programmes with built-in spectrographs.

W14.5 FrameNet: a database of English word meanings.

W14.6 Kicktionary: the multilingual English-French-German dictionary of football.

W14.7 The Schengen Area in Europe.

W14.8 The Mapping Applied Linguistics companion website.

W14.9 The Bercow Review, published by the UK Department of Children, Schools and Families.

W14.10 Arizona grades teachers on fluency.

W14.11 Technology will become seamlessly embedded in our daily lives.

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